Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 94-99 Table of Contents     

Improving bioscience research reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research

1 The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London, United Kingdom
2 School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
3 School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
4 National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
5 Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2010

Correspondence Address:
Carol Kilkenny
The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.72351

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How to cite this article:
Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG. Improving bioscience research reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2010;1:94-9

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Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG. Improving bioscience research reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. J Pharmacol Pharmacother [serial online] 2010 [cited 2017 Apr 24];1:94-9. Available from: http://www.jpharmacol.com/text.asp?2010/1/2/94/72351

In the last decade the number of bioscience journals has increased enormously, with many filling specialised niches reflecting new disciplines and technologies. The emergence of open-access journals has revolutionised the publication process, maximising the availability of research data. Nevertheless, a wealth of evidence shows that across many areas, the reporting of biomedical research is often inadequate, leading to the view that even if the science is sound, in many cases the publications themselves are not "fit for purpose," meaning that incomplete reporting of relevant information effectively renders many publications of limited value as instruments to inform policy or clinical and scientific practice. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] A recent review of clinical research showed that there is considerable cumulative waste of financial resources at all stages of the research process, including as a result of publications that are unusable due to poor reporting. [22] It is unlikely that this issue is confined to clinical research. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]

Failure to describe research methods and to report results appropriately therefore has potential scientific, ethical and economic implications for the entire research process and the reputation of those involved in it. This is particularly true for animal research, one of the most controversial areas of science. The largest and most comprehensive review of published animal research undertaken to date, to our knowledge, has highlighted serious omissions in the way research using animals is reported. [5] The survey, commissioned by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), a UK Government-sponsored scientific organisation, found that only 59% of the 271 randomly chosen articles assessed stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used (i.e., species/strain, sex and age/weight). Most of the papers surveyed did not report using randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%) to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods fully described them and presented the results with a measure of precision or variability. [5] These findings are a cause for concern and are consistent with reviews of many research areas, including clinical studies, published in recent years. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22]

   Good Reporting is Essential for Peer Review and to Inform Future Research Top

Scrutiny by scientific peers has long been the mainstay of "quality control" for the publication process. The way that experiments are reported, in terms of the level of detail of methods and the presentation of key results, is crucial to the peer review process and, indeed, the subsequent utility and validity of the knowledge base that is used to inform future research. The onus is therefore on the research community to ensure that their research articles include all relevant information to allow in-depth critique and to avoiding duplicating studies and performing redundant experiments. Ideally scientific publications should present sufficient information to allow a knowledgeable reader to understand what was done, why and how and to assess the biological relevance of the study and the reliability and validity of the findings. There should also be enough information to allow the experiment to be repeated. [23] The problem therefore is how to ensure that all relevant information is included in research publications.

   Using Reporting Guidelines Measurably Improves the Quality of Reporting Top

Evidence provided by reviews of published research suggests that many researchers and peer reviewers would benefit from guidance about what information should be provided in a research article. The CONSORT Statement for randomised controlled clinical trials was one of the first guidelines developed in response to this need. [24],[25] Since publication, an increasing number of leading journals have supported CONSORT as part of their instructions to authors. [26],[27] As a result, convincing evidence is emerging that CONSORT improves the quality and transparency of reports of clinical trials. [28],[29]

Following CONSORT, many other guidelines have been developed-there are currently more than 90 available for reporting different types of health research, most of which have been published in the last ten years (see http://www.equator-network.org and references [30],[31] ). Guidelines have also been developed to improve the reporting of other specific bioscience research areas including metabolomics and gene expression studies. [32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37] Several organisations support the case for improved reporting and recommend the use of reporting guidelines, including the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the Council of Science Editors, the Committee on Publication Ethics and the Nuffield Council for Bioethics. [38],[39],[40],[41]

   Improving the Reporting of Animal Experiments-The ARRIVE Guidelines Top

Most bioscience journals currently provide little or no guidance on what information to report when describing animal research. [42],[43],[44],[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50] Our review found that 4% of the 271 journal articles assessed did not report the number of animals used anywhere in the methods or the results sections. [5] Reporting animal numbers is essential so that the biological and statistical significance of the experimental results can be assessed or the data reanalysed and is also necessary if the experimental methods are to be repeated. Improved reporting of these and other details will maximise the availability and utility of the information gained from every animal and every experiment, preventing unnecessary animal use in the future. To address this, we led an initiative to produce guidelines for reporting animal research. The guidelines, referred to as ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting In vivo Experiments), have been developed using the CONSORT Statement as their foundation. [24],[25]

The ARRIVE guidelines consist of a checklist of 20 items describing the minimum information that all scientific publications reporting research using animals should include, such as the number and specific characteristics of animals used (including species, strain, sex and genetic background); details of housing and husbandry; and the experimental, statistical and analytical methods (including details of methods used to reduce bias such as randomisation and blinding). All the items in the checklist have been included to promote high-quality, comprehensive reporting to allow an accurate critical review of what was done and what was found.

Consensus and consultation are the corner-stones of the guideline development process. [51] To maximise their utility, the ARRIVE guidelines have been prepared in consultation with scientists, statisticians, journal editors and research funders. We convened an expert working group, comprising researchers and statisticians from a range of disciplines and journal editors from Nature Cell Biology, Science, Laboratory Animals and the British Journal of Pharmacology (see Acknowledgments). At a one-day meeting in June 2009, the working group agreed the scope and broad content of a draft set of guidelines that were then used as the basis for a wider consultation with the scientific community, involving researchers and grant holders and representatives of the major bioscience funding bodies including the Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and The Royal Society [Table 1] and [Table 2]. Feedback on the content and wording of the items was incorporated into the final version of the checklist. Further feedback on the content utility of the guidelines is encouraged and sought.
Table 1: Funding bodies consulted

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Table 2: Animal research: Reporting in vivo experiments: The ARRIVE guidelines

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   Improved Reporting will Maximise the Output of Published Research Top

These guidelines were developed to maximise the output from research using animals by optimising the information that is provided in publications on the design, conduct and analysis of the experiments. The need for such guidelines is further illustrated by the systematic reviews of animal research that have been carried out to assess the efficacy of various drugs and interventions in animal models. [8],[9],[13],[52],[53],[54],[55] Well-designed and -reported animal studies are the essential building blocks from which such a systematic review is constructed. The reviews have found that, in many cases, reporting omissions, in addition to the limitations of the animal models used in the individual studies assessed in the review, are a barrier to reaching any useful conclusion about the efficacy of the drugs and interventions being compared. [2],[3]

Driving improvements in reporting research using animals will require the collective efforts of authors, journal editors, peer reviewers and funding bodies. There is no single simple or rapid solution, but the ARRIVE guidelines provide a practical resource to aid these improvements. The guidelines will be published in several leading bioscience research journals simultaneously, [56],[57],[58],[59],[60] and publishers have already endorsed the guidelines by including them in their journal Instructions to Authors subsequent to publication. The NC3Rs will continue to work with journal editors to extend the range of journals adopting the guidelines and with the scientific community to disseminate the guidelines as widely as possible ( http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/ARRIVE ).

   Acknowledgments Top

The NC3Rs gratefully acknowledges the expertise and advice that all the contributors have given to developing the guidelines. We would particularly like to acknowledge the contribution of the other members of NC3Rs Reporting Guidelines Working Group (note that the working group members and authors who contributed to these guidelines were advising in their personal capacity and their input does not necessarily represent the policy of the organisations with which they are associated): Professor David Balding, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London UK; Dr Colin Dunn Editor Laboratory Animals (Royal Society of Medicine press); Dr. Stella Hurtley, Senior Editor Science; Professor Ian McGrath Editor-in-Chief British Journal of Pharmacology (Wiley Blackwell publishers); and Dr. Clare Stanford, Department of Psychopharmacology, University College, London UK. We would also like to thank NC3Rs grant holders, the Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Parkinson's Disease Society, British Heart Foundation and their grant holders and funding committee members who provided feedback on the guidelines; and Dr. Kathryn Chapman and Dr. Vicky Robinson (both NC3Rs) for their help with the manuscript.

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Guang-Yin Shen,In-Hwa Park,Yi-Sun Song,Hyun-Woo Joo,Yonggu Lee,Jeong-Hun Shin,Kyung-Soo Kim,Hyuck Kim
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 2016; 13(3): 297
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Neurophenotypes in Airway Diseases. Insights from Translational Cough Studies
Maria G. Belvisi,Mark A. Birrell,Saifudin Khalid,Michael A. Wortley,Rachel Dockry,Julie Coote,Kimberley Holt,Eric Dubuis,Angela Kelsall,Sarah A. Maher,Sara Bonvini,Ashley Woodcock,Jaclyn A. Smith
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2016; 193(12): 1364
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Preclinical platform of retinoblastoma xenografts recapitulating human disease and molecular markers of dissemination
Guillem Pascual-Pasto,Nagore G. Olaciregui,Monica Vila-Ubach,Sonia Paco,Carles Monterrubio,Eva Rodriguez,Ursula Winter,Mireia Batalla-Vilacis,Jaume Catala,Hector Salvador,Andreu Parareda,Paula Schaiquevich,Mariona Suñol,Jaume Mora,Cinzia Lavarino,Carmen de Torres,Guillermo L. Chantada,Angel M. Carcaboso
Cancer Letters. 2016; 380(1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Toward more predictive genetic mouse models of Alzheimeræs disease
Kristen D. Onos,Stacey J. Sukoff Rizzo,Gareth R. Howell,Michael Sasner
Brain Research Bulletin. 2016; 122: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Orthodontics treatments for managing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Nelly T. Huynh,Eve Desplats,Fernanda R. Almeida
Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2016; 25: 84
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Repression of telomere-associated genes by microglia activation in neuropsychiatric disease
Golo Kronenberg,Ria Uhlemann,Johanna Schöner,Stephanie Wegner,Valérie Boujon,Nikolas Deigendesch,Matthias Endres,Karen Gertz
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 The next step in translational research: lessons learned from the first preclinical randomized controlled trial
Gemma Llovera,Arthur Liesz
Journal of Neurochemistry. 2016; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Pectin nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces - an experimental study in rabbits
Katarzyna Gurzawska,Kai Dirscherl,Bodil Jørgensen,Tord Berglundh,Niklas Rye Jørgensen,Klaus Gotfredsen
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2016; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Bone computed tomography mineral content evaluation in chickens: effects of substances in homeopathic concentration
Sergio Canello,Gabriele Gasparini,Patrizio Luisetto,Alessandro Di Cerbo,Fabio Pomerri
Homeopathy. 2016; 105(1): 92
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Fc-saxatilin, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses hypoxia-induced vascular leakage by regulating endothelial occludin expression
H.-J. Choi,I. Kwon,N.-E. Kim,J. Kim,S. An,S. Kang,S.-Y. Hong,H. S. Nam,J. H. Heo
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2016; 117(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Assessment of the Cancer Risk of the Fat-Grafted Breast in a Murine Model
Francisco Claro,Luciana R. Moreira,Joseane Morari,Luis O.Z. Sarian,Glauce A. Pinto,Licio A. Velloso,Aarão M. Pinto-Neto
Aesthetic Surgery Journal. 2016; : sjw209
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31 Agomelatine affects rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons via melatonin and serotonin receptors
Jing Yang,Hui Juan Jin,Elisabeth Mocaër,Laure Seguin,Hua Zhao,Benjamin Rusak
Life Sciences. 2016; 155: 147
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 A Series of COX-2 Inhibitors Endowed with NO-Releasing Properties: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Docking Analysis
Sara Consalvi,Giovanna Poce,Rino Ragno,Manuela Sabatino,Concettina La Motta,Stefania Sartini,Vincenzo Calderone,Alma Martelli,Carla Ghelardini,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Mariangela Biava
ChemMedChem. 2016;
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33 The a9a10 nicotinic receptor antagonist a-conotoxin RgIA prevents neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin treatment
Alessandra Pacini,Laura Micheli,Mario Maresca,Jacopo Juno Valerio Branca,J. Michael McIntosh,Carla Ghelardini,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
Experimental Neurology. 2016; 282: 37
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Inhalation anesthesia of rats: influence of the fraction of inspired oxygen on limb ischemia/reperfusion injury
S Zhang,C Duehrkop,JA Plock,R Rieben
Laboratory Animals. 2016; 50(3): 185
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Sustained relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain by a CRMP2 peptide aptamer with low abuse potential
Jennifer Y. Xie,Lindsey A. Chew,Xiaofang Yang,Yuying Wang,Chaoling Qu,Yue Wang,Lauren M. Federici,Stephanie D. Fitz,Matthew S. Ripsch,Michael R. Due,Aubin Moutal,May Khanna,Fletcher A. White,Todd W. Vanderah,Philip L. Johnson,Frank Porreca,Rajesh Khanna
PAIN. 2016; 157(9): 2124
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Laura Micheli,Mario Maresca,Giancarlo Cravotto,Maria Bellumori,Marzia Innocenti,Nadia Mulinacci,Carla Ghelardini
Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 34832
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Interleukin-17 Impairs Salivary Tight Junction Integrity in Sjögren’s Syndrome
L.W. Zhang,X. Cong,Y. Zhang,T. Wei,Y.C. Su,A.C.A. Serrão,A.R.T. Brito,G.Y. Yu,H. Hua,L.L. Wu
Journal of Dental Research. 2016; 95(7): 784
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Whatæs a SNP between friends: The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on virulence and phenotypes of Clostridium difficile strain 630 and derivatives
Mark M. Collery,Sarah A. Kuehne,Shonna M. McBride,Michelle L. Kelly,Marc Monot,Alan Cockayne,Bruno Dupuy,Nigel P. Minton
Virulence. 2016; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 The Versatile 2-Substituted Imidazoline Nucleus as a Structural Motif of Ligands Directed to the Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptor
Fabio Del Bello,Antonio Cilia,Antonio Carrieri,Domenico Claudio Fasano,Carla Ghelardini,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Laura Micheli,Carlo Santini,Eleonora Diamanti,Mario Giannella,Gianfabio Giorgioni,Valerio Mammoli,Corinne Dalila Paoletti,Riccardo Petrelli,Alessandro Piergentili,Wilma Quaglia,Maria Pigini
ChemMedChem. 2016; 11(20): 2287
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Magnetic study on biodistribution and biodegradation of oral magnetic nanostructures in the rat gastrointestinal tract
Miguel Martín,Alba Rodríguez-Nogales,Víctor Garcés,Natividad Gálvez,Lucía Gutiérrez,Julio Gálvez,Deyanira Rondón,Mónica Olivares,Jose M. Dominguez-Vera
Nanoscale. 2016; 8(32): 15041
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Neuroprotective Effect of the Marine-Derived Compound 11-Dehydrosinulariolide through DJ-1-Related Pathway in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Chien-Wei Feng,Han-Chun Hung,Shi-Ying Huang,Chun-Hong Chen,Yun-Ru Chen,Chun-Yu Chen,San-Nan Yang,Hui-Min Wang,Ping-Jyun Sung,Jyh-Horng Sheu,Kuan-Hao Tsui,Wu-Fu Chen,Zhi-Hong Wen
Marine Drugs. 2016; 14(10): 187
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Benzenesulfonamides Incorporating Flexible Triazole Moieties Are Highly Effective Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Synthesis and Kinetic, Crystallographic, Computational, and Intraocular Pressure Lowering Investigations
Alessio Nocentini,Marta Ferraroni,Fabrizio Carta,Mariangela Ceruso,Paola Gratteri,Cecilia Lanzi,Emanuela Masini,Claudiu T. Supuran
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2016; 59(23): 10692
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone healing of critical-size defects treated with bovine bone graft
Alvaro Francisco Bosco,Paula Lazilha Faleiros,Luana Rodrigues Carmona,Valdir Gouveia Garcia,Letícia Helena Theodoro,Nathália Januario de Araujo,Maria José Hitomi Nagata,Juliano Milanezi de Almeida
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2016; 163: 303
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Histological assessment of hard and soft tissues surrounding a novel ceramic implant: a pilot study in the minipig
Antonio Liñares,Leticia Grize,Fernando Muñoz,Benjamin Evans Pippenger,Michel Dard,Olivier Domken,Juan Blanco-Carrión
Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2016; 43(6): 538
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 BN-9, a chimeric peptide with mixed opioid and neuropeptide FF receptor agonistic properties, produces nontolerance-forming antinociception in mice
Ning Li,Zheng-lan Han,Zi-long Wang,Yan-hong Xing,Yu-long Sun,Xu-hui Li,Jing-jing Song,Ting Zhang,Run Zhang,Meng-na Zhang,Biao Xu,Quan Fang,Rui Wang
British Journal of Pharmacology. 2016; 173(11): 1864
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Effects of the neutrophil elastase inhibitor EL-17 in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Laura Micheli,Lorenzo Cinci,Mario Maresca,Claudia Vergelli,Alessandra Pacini,Mark T. Quinn,Maria Paola Giovannoni,Carla Ghelardini
Rheumatology. 2016; : kew055
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review
Gbeminiyi O. Samuel,Sebastian Hoffmann,Robert A. Wright,Manoj Mathew Lalu,Grace Patlewicz,Richard A. Becker,George L. DeGeorge,Dean Fergusson,Thomas Hartung,R. Jeffrey Lewis,Martin L. Stephens
Environment International. 2016;
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48 Accounting for reciprocal host–microbiome interactions in experimental science
Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck,Herbert W. Virgin
Nature. 2016; 534(7606): 191
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Antidepressive Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of the Preclinical and Clinical Literature
M. Polyakova,M. L. Schroeter,B. M. Elzinga,S. Holiga,P. Schoenknecht,E. R. de Kloet,M. L. Molendijk,Lin Lu
PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(11): e0141564
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 The Metabolic Effects of Consumption of Yellow Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Experimental Rats
Nelson Udeme,Polycarp Okafor,Chinedum Eleazu
International Journal of Toxicology. 2015; 34(6): 559
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 A meta-analysis of efficacy in pre-clinical human stem cell therapies for traumatic brain injury
Janessa Chang,Michael Phelan,Brian J. Cummings
Experimental Neurology. 2015; 273: 225
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Pyruvate stabilizes electrocardiographic and hemodynamic function in pigs recovering from cardiac arrest
Brandon H Cherry,Anh Q Nguyen,Roger A Hollrah,Arthur G Williams,Besim Hoxha,Albert H Olivencia-Yurvati,Robert T Mallet
Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2015; 240(12): 1774
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 A class of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with neuropathic pain modulating effects
Fabrizio Carta,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Melissa Pinard,Carla Ghelardini,Andrea Scozzafava,Robert McKenna,Claudiu T. Supuran
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 2015; 23(8): 1828
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Acute and subchronic antinociceptive effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists infused by intrathecal route in rats
Laura Micheli,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Remo Guerrini,Claudio Trapella,Matteo Zanardelli,Roberto Ciccocioppo,Anna Rizzi,Carla Ghelardini,Girolamo Calò
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015; 754: 73
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 In the brain of mice, 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) is converted into 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1) and it is included within the signaling network connecting thyroid hormone metabolites with histamine
Annunziatina Laurino,Gaetano De Siena,Alessandro Saba,Grazia Chiellini,Elisa Landucci,Riccardo Zucchi,Laura Raimondi
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015; 761: 130
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Carbonic anhydrase inhibition for the management of cerebral ischemia:in vivoevaluation of sulfonamide and coumarin inhibitors
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Laura Micheli,Fabrizio Carta,Andrea Cozzi,Carla Ghelardini,Claudiu T. Supuran
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2015; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Quel modèle murin d’infarctus cérébral choisir pour permettre une recherche translationnelle plus efficace ?
Clément Gakuba,Morgane Louessard,Marina Rubio,Hélène Party,Antonin Doyere,Marine Lerouvillois,Suzanne Goursaud,Jean-Luc Hanouz,Emmanuel Touzé,Véronique Agin,Denis Vivien,Maxime Gauberti
Anesthésie & Réanimation. 2015; 1: A46
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Mechanical competence of ovariectomy-induced compromised bone after single or combined treatment with high-frequency loading and bisphosphonates
Maxime Camargos G. V.,Maxime Bhattacharya P.,Maxime van Lenthe G. H.,Maxime Del Bel Cury A. A.,Maxime Naert I.,Maxime Duyck J.,Maxime Vandamme K.
Scientific Reports. 2015; 5: 10795
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 A novel snake venom-derived GPIb antagonist, anfibatide, protects mice from acute experimental ischaemic stroke and reperfusion injury
Ting-Ting Li,Man-Li Fan,Shi-Xiang Hou,Xiao-Yi Li,Devin M Barry,Hui Jin,Sheng-Yong Luo,Feng Kong,Lit-Fui Lau,Xiang-Rong Dai,Guo-Hui Zhang,Lan-Lan Zhou
British Journal of Pharmacology. 2015; 172(15): 3904
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Research synthesis in veterinary science: Narrative reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analysis
Annette OæConnor,Jan Sargeant
The Veterinary Journal. 2015; 206(3): 261
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Reduced ß-amyloid pathology in an APP transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease lacking functional B and T cells
Claudia Späni,Tobias Suter,Rebecca Derungs,Maria Teresa Ferretti,Tobias Welt,Fabian Wirth,Christoph Gericke,Roger M. Nitsch,Luka Kulic
Acta Neuropathologica Communications. 2015; 3(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Tail-flick test response in 3×Tg-AD mice at early and advanced stages of disease
Raquel Baeta-Corral,Ruti Defrin,Chagi G. Pick,Lydia Giménez-Llort
Neuroscience Letters. 2015; 600: 158
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Early postnatal handling and environmental enrichment improve the behavioral responses of 17-month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice in the Forced Swim Test in a gender-dependent manner
Virginia Torres-Lista,Lydia Giménez-Llort
Behavioural Processes. 2015; 120: 120
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Increased a1-adrenoreceptor activity is required to sustain blood pressure in female rats under food restriction
Aline Arlindo de Souza,Rodrigo Cunha de Menezes,Aline Rezende Abreu,Glaucy Rodrigues Araujo,Daniela Caldeira Costa,Deoclecio Alves Chianca
Life Sciences. 2015; 128: 55
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Widespread pain reliever profile of a flower extract of Tanacetum parthenium
Lorenzo Di-Cesare Mannelli,Barbara Tenci,Matteo Zanardelli,Anna Maidecchi,Andrea Lugli,Luisa Mattoli,Carla Ghelardini
Phytomedicine. 2015; 22(7-8): 752
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Micro-CT analysis of the rodent jaw bone micro-architecture: A systematic review
F. Faot,M. Chatterjee,G.V. de Camargos,Joke Duyck,K. Vandamme
Bone Reports. 2015; 2: 14
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Periodontal ligament-derived cells for periodontal regeneration in animal models: a systematic review
R. Bright,K. Hynes,S. Gronthos,P. M. Bartold
Journal of Periodontal Research. 2015; 50(2): 160
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Mast cells promote blood brain barrier breakdown and neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia
Craig M McKittrick,Catherine E Lawrence,Hilary V O Carswell
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 2015; 35(4): 638
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Intrathecal administration of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists in rats: A strategy to relieve chemotherapy-induced neuropathic hypersensitivity
Laura Micheli,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Anna Rizzi,Remo Guerrini,Claudio Trapella,Girolamo Calò,Carla Ghelardini
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015; 766: 155
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for quantification of pulmonary edema in acute lung injury
Constantin J. C. Trepte,Charles R. Phillips,Josep Solà,Andy Adler,Sebastian A. Haas,Michael Rapin,Stephan H. Böhm,Daniel A. Reuter
Critical Care. 2015; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Peri-implant soft tissue analyses comparing Ti and ZrO2abutments: an animal study on beagle dogs
Juan Blanco,Leticia Caneiro,Antonio Liñares,Pilar Batalla,Fernando Muñoz,Isabel Ramos
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2015; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Oxaliplatin evokes P2X7-dependent glutamate release in the cerebral cortex: A pain mechanism mediated by Pannexin 1
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Manuela Marcoli,Laura Micheli,Matteo Zanardelli,Guido Maura,Carla Ghelardini,Chiara Cervetto
Neuropharmacology. 2015; 97: 133
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Unmanipulated native fat exposed to high-energy diet, but not autologous grafted fat by itself, may lead to overexpression of Ki67 and PAI-1
Francisco Claro,Joseane Morari,Luciana R Moreira,Luís O Z Sarian,Glauce A Pinto,Licio A Velloso,Aarão M Pinto-Neto
SpringerPlus. 2015; 4(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Uric Acid Produces an Inflammatory Response through Activation of NF-?B in the Hypothalamus: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Disorders
Wenjie Lu,Youzhi Xu,Xiaoni Shao,Fabao Gao,Yan Li,Jing Hu,Zeping Zuo,Xue Shao,Liangxue Zhou,Yinglan Zhao,Xiaobo Cen
Scientific Reports. 2015; 5: 12144
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Minimizing chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: preclinical and clinical development of new perspectives
Laura Poupon,Nicolas Kerckhove,Julie Vein,Sylvain Lamoine,Nicolas Authier,Jérôme Busserolles,David Balayssac
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2015; 14(8): 1269
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Adjuvant Therapy With Sodium Alendronate for the Treatment of Experimental Periodontitis in Rats
Juliano De Almeida,Edilson Ervolino,Luiz Henrique Bonfietti,Vivian Cristina Noronha Novaes,Letícia Helena Theodoro,Leandro Araujo Fernandes,Thiago Marchi Martins,Paula Lazilha Faleiros,Valdir Gouveia Garcia
Journal of Periodontology. 2015; 86(10): 1166
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 A model of neuropathic pain induced by sorafenib in the rat: Effect of dimiracetam
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Mario Maresca,Carlo Farina,Michael W. Scherz,Carla Ghelardini
NeuroToxicology. 2015; 50: 101
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Improving standards for reporting studies involving humans and experimental animals in the British Journal of Nutrition and in the Journal of Nutritional Science
Graham C. Burdge
British Journal of Nutrition. 2014; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Cell type–specific mRNA purification by translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP)
Myriam Heiman,Ruth Kulicke,Robert J Fenster,Paul Greengard,Nathaniel Heintz
Nature Protocols. 2014; 9(6): 1282
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Persistence of behaviours in the Forced Swim Test in 3xTg-AD mice at advanced stages of disease
Virginia Torres-Lista,Lydia Giménez-Llort
Behavioural Processes. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Ligature-induced peri-implantitis in mice
F. Q. Pirih,S. Hiyari,A. D. V. Barroso,A. C. A. Jorge,J. Perussolo,E. Atti,S. Tetradis,P. M. Camargo
Journal of Periodontal Research. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Improving standards for reporting studies involving humans and experimental animals in the British Journal of Nutrition and in the Journal of Nutritional Science
Graham C. Burdge
Journal of Nutritional Science. 2014; 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Specific targeting of neurotoxic side effects and pharmacological profile of the novel cancer stem cell drug salinomycin in mice
Wolfgang Boehmerle,Hanna Muenzfeld,Andreas Springer,Petra Huehnchen,Matthias Endres
Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Polytherapy with a combination of three repurposed drugs (PXT3003) down-regulates Pmp22 over-expression and improves myelination, axonal and functional parameters in models of CMT1A neuropathy
Ilya Chumakov,Aude Milet,Nathalie Cholet,Gwenaël Primas,Aurélie Boucard,Yannick Pereira,Esther Graudens,Jonas Mandel,Julien Laffaire,Julie Foucquier,Fabrice Glibert,Viviane Bertrand,Klaus-Armin Nave,Michael W Sereda,Emmanuel Vial,Mickaël Guedj,Rodolphe Hajj,Serguei Nabirotchkin,Daniel Cohen
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2014; 9(1): 201
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Bizarre behaviors and risk assessment in 3xTg-AD mice at early stages of the disease
R. Baeta-Corral,L. Giménez-Llort
Behavioural Brain Research. 2014; 258: 97
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Assessment of three approaches for regulatory decision making on pesticides with endocrine disrupting properties
P. Marx-Stoelting,L. Niemann,V. Ritz,B. Ulbrich,A. Gall,K.I. Hirsch-Ernst,R. Pfeil,R. Solecki
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Electrophysiological, behavioral and histological characterization of paclitaxel, cisplatin, vincristine and bortezomib-induced neuropathy in C57Bl/6 mice
Wolfgang Boehmerle,Petra Huehnchen,Sarah Peruzzaro,Mustafa Balkaya,Matthias Endres
Scientific Reports. 2014; 4: 6370
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Individualized Early Goal-Directed Therapy in Systemic Inflammation
Karin H. Wodack,Annika M. Poppe,Tomköetter Lena,Kai A. Bachmann,Cilly M. Strobel,Sarah Bonk,Jan Havel,Kai Heckel,Andreas Gocht,Bernd Saugel,Oliver Mann,Jakob R. Izbicki,Alwin E. Goetz,Constantin J. C. Trepte,Daniel A. Reuter
Critical Care Medicine. 2014; 42(12): e741
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Pharmacological and methodological aspects of the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups; a systematic review and meta-analysis
Lucianne Groenink,P. Monika Verdouw,Brenda Bakker,Kimberley E. Wever
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Rigor or Mortis: Best Practices for Preclinical Research in Neuroscience
Oswald Steward,Rita Balice-Gordon
Neuron. 2014; 84(3): 572
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 The Need for Randomization in Animal Trials: An Overview of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer A. Hirst,Jeremy Howick,Jeffrey K. Aronson,Nia Roberts,Rafael Perera,Constantinos Koshiaris,Carl Heneghan,Brett Thombs
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(6): e98856
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Influence of mechanical instruments on the biocompatibility of titanium dental implants surfaces: a systematic review
Anna Louropoulou,Dagmar E. Slot,Fridus Van der Weijden
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2014; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study
Rita Aldini,Matteo Micucci,Monica Cevenini,Romana Fato,Christian Bergamini,Cristina Nanni,Massimiliano Cont,Cecilia Camborata,Silvia Spinozzi,Marco Montagnani,Giulia Roda,Antonia DæErrico-Grigioni,Francesca Rosini,Aldo Roda,Giuseppe Mazzella,Alberto Chiarini,Roberta Budriesi,Udai P. Singh
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(9): e108112
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Identification of hyperacute ischemic stroke with a more homogenous nature
Kyung Yi,Hong Lee,Sang-Rae Lee,Youngjeon Lee,Seung Lee,Chulhyun Lee,Sang-Hoon Cha
Translational Neuroscience. 2014; 5(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-Axis as Preventive Therapy for Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis
Hui-Kuo G. Shu,Younghyoun Yoon,Samuel Hong,Kaiming Xu,Huiying Gao,Chunhai Hao,Edilson Torres-Gonzalez,Cardenes Nayra,Mauricio Rojas,Hyunsuk Shim,Wei Shi
PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(11): e79768
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Translating Translational Research into Global Health Gains
PLoS Medicine. 2013; 10(7): e1001493
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Preliminary Investigations on Intradiscal Pressures during Daily Activities: An In Vivo Study Using the Merino Sheep
Sandra Reitmaier,Hendrik Schmidt,Renate Ihler,Tugrul Kocak,Nicolas Graf,Anita Ignatius,Hans-Joachim Wilke,Bart O. Williams
PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(7): e69610
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Inhibition of IL-6 signaling: A novel therapeutic approach to treating spinal cord injury pain
Cathrine Baastrup,Nanna Brix Finnerup,Andrew S.C. Rice,Troels Staehelin Jensen,Robert P. Yezierski
PAIN®. 2013;
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99 A new standardized-automatic method for bone-to-implant contact histomorphometric analysis based on backscattered scanning electron microscopy images
Carolina Manresa,Manel Bosch,María Cristina Manzanares,Patricia Carvalho,José Javier Echeverría
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 Striatal CB1and D2receptors regulate expression of each other, CRIP1A and delta opioid systems
Lawrence C. Blume,Caroline E. Bass,Steven R. Childers,George D. Dalton,David C. S. Roberts,Jasmine M. Richardson,Ruoyu Xiao,Dana E. Selley,Allyn C. Howlett
Journal of Neurochemistry. 2013; 124(6): 808
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