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Blood sample collection in small laboratory animals
S Parasuraman, R Raveendran, R Kesavan
July-December 2010, 1(2):87-93
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.72350  PMID:21350616
  49,401 8,131 112
How to calculate sample size in animal studies?
Jaykaran Charan, ND Kantharia
October-December 2013, 4(4):303-306
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.119726  PMID:24250214
Calculation of sample size is one of the important component of design of any research including animal studies. If a researcher select less number of animals it may lead to missing of any significant difference even if it exist in population and if more number of animals selected then it may lead to unnecessary wastage of resources and may lead to ethical issues. In this article, on the basis of review of literature done by us we suggested few methods of sample size calculations for animal studies.
  20,542 6,652 145
Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits
Kirtida R Tandel
October-December 2011, 2(4):236-243
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.85936  PMID:22025850
Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.
  20,637 3,514 39
Critical appraisal skills programme
Jatinder Singh
January-March 2013, 4(1):76-77
  17,718 4,093 32
Switch over from intravenous to oral therapy: A concise overview
Jissa Maria Cyriac, Emmanuel James
April-June 2014, 5(2):83-87
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.130042  PMID:24799810
Majority of the patients admitted to a hospital with severe infections are initially started with intravenous medications. Short intravenous course of therapy for 2-3 days followed by oral medications for the remainder of the course is found to be beneficial to many patients. This switch over from intravenous to oral therapy is widely practiced in the case of antibiotics in many developed countries. Even though intravenous to oral therapy conversion is inappropriate for a patient who is critically ill or who has inability to absorb oral medications, every hospital will have a certain number of patients who are eligible for switch over from intravenous to oral therapy. Among the various routes of administration of medications, oral administration is considered to be the most acceptable and economical method of administration. The main obstacle limiting intravenous to oral conversion is the belief that oral medications do not achieve the same bioavailability as that of intravenous medications and that the same agent must be used both intravenously and orally. The advent of newer, more potent or broad spectrum oral agents that achieve higher and more consistent serum and tissue concentration has paved the way for the popularity of intravenous to oral medication conversion. In this review, the advantages of intravenous to oral switch over therapy, the various methods of intravenous to oral conversion, bioavailability of various oral medications for the switch over program, the patient selection criteria for conversion from parenteral to oral route and application of intravenous to oral switch over through case studies are exemplified.
  17,241 2,637 21
Measurement of invasive blood pressure in rats
Subramani Parasuraman, Ramasamy Raveendran
April-June 2012, 3(2):172-177
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.95521  PMID:22629093
Blood pressure (BP) is one of the vital parameters used to assess the cardiovascular functions of a mammal. BP is commonly recorded using invasive, noninvasive, and radio telemetry methods, but invasive blood pressure (IBP) recording is considered the gold standard. IBP provides a direct indication of the effect of the investigational products on the circulatory system. Recording the IBP in rodents is an essential part of the preliminary screening of any product to determine its effect on the cardiovascular system. The present article describes the measurement of the IBP in Wistar rats/Sprague Dawley rats.
  14,064 1,894 3
Toxicological screening
S Parasuraman
April-June 2011, 2(2):74-79
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.81895  PMID:21772764
Toxicity testing of new compounds is essential for drug development process. The preclinical toxicity testing on various biological systems reveals the species-, organ- and dose- specific toxic effects of an investigational product. The toxicity of substances can be observed by (a) studying the accidental exposures to a substance (b) in vitro studies using cells/ cell lines (c) in vivo exposure on experimental animals. This review mainly focuses on the various experimental animal models and methods used for toxicity testing of substances. The pre-clinical toxicity testing helps to calculate "No Observed Adverse Effect Level" which is needed to initiate the clinical evaluation of investigational products.
  11,574 2,737 62
Antibiotic sensitivity profile of bacterial pathogens in postoperative wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India
Nutanbala N Goswami, Hiren R Trivedi, Alpesh Puri P Goswami, Tejas K Patel, CB Tripathi
July-September 2011, 2(3):158-164
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.83279  PMID:21897707
Objective: To find out the most common bacterial pathogens responsible for post-operative wound infection and their antibiotic sensitivity profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was carried out in patients of postoperative wound infection. Samples from wound discharge were collected using a sterile swab and studied for identification of isolates by Gram stains and culture growth followed by in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: Out of 183 organisms, 126 (68.85%) isolated organisms were gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (26.23%), was the predominant organism. S. aureus was sensitive to rifampicin (89.58%), levofloxacin (60.42%), and vancomycin (54.17%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (83.78%), gatifloxacin (51.35%), and meropenem (51.35%). Escherichia coli was sensitive to levofloxacin (72.41%) and ciprofloxacin (62.07%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (63.16%), levofloxacin (63.16%), gatifloxacin (63.16%), and linezolid (56.52%). Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (75%) and linezolid (62.50). Proteus vulgaris was sensitive to ampicillin+sulbactam (57.14%) followed by levofloxacin (50%). Conclusions: There is an alarming increase of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in the emergence of VRSA/VISA, meropenem, and third generation cephalosporin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linezolid showing sensitivity against Gram negative bacteria.
  10,532 1,361 11
Improving bioscience research reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research
Carol Kilkenny, William J Browne, Innes C Cuthill, Michael Emerson, Douglas G Altman
July-December 2010, 1(2):94-99
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.72351  PMID:21350617
  10,030 1,525 209
CONSORT 2010 statement: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials
Kenneth F Schulz, Douglas G Altman, David Moher
July-December 2010, 1(2):100-107
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.72352  PMID:21350618
  9,511 1,834 140
The curious case of zinc for diarrhea: Unavailable, unprescribed, and unused
B Gitanjali, K Weerasuriya
October-December 2011, 2(4):225-229
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.85933  PMID:22025848
  9,264 1,747 8
Mesotherapy - The french connection
G Sivagnanam
January-June 2010, 1(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.64529  PMID:21808584
Mesotherapy involves the use of multiple intradermal or subcutaneous injections of a mixture of compounds in minute doses, by means of very fine needles, directly over/near the affected sites. Originally invented in France to manage painful medical conditions, it is presently the buzz word in the field of cosmetic dermatology, chiefly to get rid of disfiguring fat. Depending upon the condition treated, the drugs injected, the techniques followed and the number of sessions involved vary. The wider reception of mesotherapy by its stakeholders are probably due to factors like inexpensive equipments, relatively minimal training for providers, much reduced dosage need of the drugs with resultant minimal untoward effects, quicker realization of benefits, minimal invasiveness/pain involved and not the least it is an outpatient procedure. Despite so many plus points, it has to be noted that currently there is a dearth of rigorous scientific studies to prove its efficacy and safety. Further, the average cost per session alone ranges from 200 USD to 600 USD.
  9,290 1,634 12
Push, promote or educate…musings of a pharmacologist on drug promotion
Chanolean Shashindran
October-December 2014, 5(4):225-226
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.142427  PMID:25422560
  1,806 8,546 -
Pharmacovigilance in Calabria (Italy): Local experiences resonate international relevance
Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
December 2013, 4(5):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.120938  PMID:24347973
  1,898 8,193 -
Trivializing assessment: A key factor in undermining the standards of medical education
S Manikandan
October-December 2015, 6(4):195-197
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.171875  PMID:26816471
  2,103 7,954 -
Rabeprazole and esomeprazole in mild-to-moderate erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease: A comparative study of efficacy and safety
Rituparna Maiti, Jyothirmai Jaida, PL John Israel, Narendar Koyagura, Sruthi Mukkisa, Anuradha Palani
July-September 2011, 2(3):150-157
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.83278  PMID:21897706
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of rabeprazole and esomeprazole in mild-to-moderate erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, outdoor-based clinical study was conducted on 60 patients of mild-to-moderate erosive GERD. After baseline clinical assessment and investigations, rabeprazole (40 mg) was prescribed to 30 patients and esomeprazole (40 mg) to another 30 patients for 4 weeks. The efficacy variables were change in GERD symptom scoring, endoscopic findings, and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) scoring over 4 weeks. Result: Heartburn, acid regurgitation, and overall GERD symptom scoring (P = 0.01) were significantly decreased with rabeprazole in comparison to esomeprazole. The comparative study of all five domains of the QOLARD questionnaire including overall scoring revealed a statistically significant improvement in the rabeprazole group. Endoscopic findings in the rabeprazole group showed an absolute improvement of 30% and relative improvement of 55% over esomeprazole. Both the drugs were well tolerated having no significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Rabeprazole (40 mg) is a better choice for mild-to-moderate GERD compared with esomeprazole (40 mg) because of its better efficacy and safety profile.
  8,105 1,716 2
Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats
Surender Singh, Vinod Nair, Yogendra K Gupta
January-March 2012, 3(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.92512  PMID:22368416
Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.
  7,680 1,231 26
Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India
Dipika Bansal, Vilok K Purohit
January-March 2013, 4(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.107642  PMID:23662019
Essential Medicine Concept, a major breakthrough in health care, started in 1977 when World Health Organization (WHO) published its first list. Appropriate use of essential medicines is one of the most cost-effective components of modern health care. The selection process has evolved from expert evaluation to evidence-based selection. The first Indian list was published in 1996 and the recent revision with 348 medicines was published in 2011 after 8 years. Health expenditure is less in India as compared to developed countries. India faces a major challenge in providing access to medicines for its 1.2 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines. In the future, countries will face challenges in selecting high-cost medicines for oncology, orphan diseases and other conditions. There is a need to develop strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.
  7,765 866 6
Evaluation of DNA damage using single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay)
S Nandhakumar, S Parasuraman, MM Shanmugam, K Ramachandra Rao, Parkash Chand, B Vishnu Bhat
April-June 2011, 2(2):107-111
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.81903  PMID:21772771
  6,509 1,732 44
The National Formulary of India 2010: Thorough and extensive revision of the preprint version needed
B Gitanjali
October-December 2011, 2(4):219-220
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.85928  PMID:22025846
  2,613 5,522 -
Vitamin D: The "sunshine" vitamin
Rathish Nair, Arun Maseeh
April-June 2012, 3(2):118-126
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.95506  PMID:22629085
Vitamin D insufficiency affects almost 50% of the population worldwide. An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, across all ethnicities and age groups, have a vitamin D deficiency (VDD). This pandemic of hypovitaminosis D can mainly be attributed to lifestyle (for example, reduced outdoor activities) and environmental (for example, air pollution) factors that reduce exposure to sunlight, which is required for ultraviolet-B (UVB)-induced vitamin D production in the skin. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is a particularly important public health issue because hypovitaminosis D is an independent risk factor for total mortality in the general population. Current studies suggest that we may need more vitamin D than presently recommended to prevent chronic disease. As the number of people with VDD continues to increase, the importance of this hormone in overall health and the prevention of chronic diseases are at the forefront of research. VDD is very common in all age groups. As few foods contain vitamin D, guidelines recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels. It is also suggested to measure the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 is recommended for deficient patients. A meta-analysis published in 2007 showed that vitamin D supplementation was associated with significantly reduced mortality. In this review, we will summarize the mechanisms that are presumed to underlie the relationship between vitamin D and understand its biology and clinical implications.
  6,716 1,297 10
Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats
Mahalaxmi Mohan, Pankaj Patankar, Prakash Ghadi, Sanjay Kasture
January-June 2010, 1(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.64533  PMID:21808588
Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI.
  6,601 1,382 14
Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Jaykaran Charan, Jagdish P Goyal, Deepak Saxena, Preeti Yadav
October-December 2012, 3(4):300-303
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.103685  PMID:23326099
Objectives : To explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in prevention of respiratory tract infections on the basis of published clinical trials. Materials and Methods : Clinical trials were searched from various electronic databases. Five clinical trials were suitable for inclusion. Outcome was events of respiratory tract infections in vitamin D group and placebo group. Data was reported as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Both random and fixed model was used for analysis. Analysis was done with the help of Comprehensive meta-analysis software 2. Results : Events of respiratory tract infections were significantly lower in vitamin D group as compared to control group [Odds ratio = 0.582 (0.417 - 0.812) P = 0.001] according to random model. Results were similar in fixed model. On separate analysis of clinical trials dealing with groups of children and adults, beneficial effect of vitamin D was observed in both, according to fixed model [Odds ratio = 0.579 (0.416 - 0.805), P = 0.001 and Odd ratio = 0.653 (0.472 - 0.9040, P = 0.010 respectively]. On using random model beneficial effect persisted in children's group but became nonsignificant in adults group [Odds ratio = 0.579 (0.416 - 0.805), P = 0.001 and Odd ratio = 0.544 (0.278 - 1.063) P = 0.075 respectively]. Conclusion : Vitamin D supplementation decreases the events related to respiratory tract infections. There is need of more well conducted clinical trials to reach to a certain conclusion.
  5,291 2,585 38
Metronomic chemotherapy
Rituparna Maiti
July-September 2014, 5(3):186-192
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136098  PMID:25210398
Toxic effects and chemoresistance are major hurdles in chemotherapy and to avoid these problems caused by traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, a new modality of drug administration called "metronomic chemotherapy" has emerged. Such regimen involves the frequent administration of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at very low doses to target activated endothelial cells in tumors, the advantages of which include minimal adverse effects and a rare chance of developing acquired drug resistance. Previously it was thought that they act by targeting angiogenesis, but recently additional mechanisms have been discovered which has established metronomic chemotherapy as a type of multi-targeted therapy. The knowledge gained from the preclinical studies of metronomic chemotherapy, along with clinical experience, will help to design better therapeutic protocols against cancer. Detailed pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies on tumor endothelial cells and large multi-centered clinical trials, integrating bio-marker analyzes, are needed to investigate and validate the best treatment combinations for each tumor type and patient population.
  6,016 1,329 24
Statin induced diabetes and its clinical implications
Umme Aiman, Ahmad Najmi, Rahat Ali Khan
July-September 2014, 5(3):181-185
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136097  PMID:25210397
Statins are one of the most commonly used drugs in the world based on their potential to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. These cholesterol-lowering drugs received a US Food and Drug Administration warning, in February 2012, regarding increased risk of incident diabetes and impaired glycemic control in patients who already have diabetes. The possible association of diabetes with statin therapy has started a wave of discussion in the medical community. A number of meta-analyses conducted in recent years have demonstrated that the association is real although causality has not been proved yet. Individual statins differ with respect to their diabetogenic property; women and elderly persons appear to be at increased risk. Various aspects of statin's adverse effect on glycemic control remain to be explored. As further research in this area continues, physicians might still take some precautions to make risk benefit ratio more favorable for the patients.
  5,807 1,536 17