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   2014| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 5, 2014

 
 
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MINI REVIEW
Statin induced diabetes and its clinical implications
Umme Aiman, Ahmad Najmi, Rahat Ali Khan
July-September 2014, 5(3):181-185
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136097  PMID:25210397
Statins are one of the most commonly used drugs in the world based on their potential to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. These cholesterol-lowering drugs received a US Food and Drug Administration warning, in February 2012, regarding increased risk of incident diabetes and impaired glycemic control in patients who already have diabetes. The possible association of diabetes with statin therapy has started a wave of discussion in the medical community. A number of meta-analyses conducted in recent years have demonstrated that the association is real although causality has not been proved yet. Individual statins differ with respect to their diabetogenic property; women and elderly persons appear to be at increased risk. Various aspects of statin's adverse effect on glycemic control remain to be explored. As further research in this area continues, physicians might still take some precautions to make risk benefit ratio more favorable for the patients.
  5,874 1,541 17
REVIEW ARTICLE
Metronomic chemotherapy
Rituparna Maiti
July-September 2014, 5(3):186-192
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136098  PMID:25210398
Toxic effects and chemoresistance are major hurdles in chemotherapy and to avoid these problems caused by traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, a new modality of drug administration called "metronomic chemotherapy" has emerged. Such regimen involves the frequent administration of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at very low doses to target activated endothelial cells in tumors, the advantages of which include minimal adverse effects and a rare chance of developing acquired drug resistance. Previously it was thought that they act by targeting angiogenesis, but recently additional mechanisms have been discovered which has established metronomic chemotherapy as a type of multi-targeted therapy. The knowledge gained from the preclinical studies of metronomic chemotherapy, along with clinical experience, will help to design better therapeutic protocols against cancer. Detailed pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies on tumor endothelial cells and large multi-centered clinical trials, integrating bio-marker analyzes, are needed to investigate and validate the best treatment combinations for each tumor type and patient population.
  6,069 1,335 24
MOLECULES OF THE MILLENNIUM
Delamanid: A new armor in combating drug-resistant tuberculosis
Alphienes Stanley Xavier, Mageshwaran Lakshmanan
July-September 2014, 5(3):222-224
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136121  PMID:25210407
Intense search has been made in the discovery of newer anti-TB drugs to tackle the issues such as drug resistance, HIV co-infection and risk of drug-drug interactions in the management of TB. Delamanid, a newer mycobacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitor, received a conditional approval from European medicines agency (EMA) for the treatment of MDR-TB. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that delamanid has high potency, least risk for drug-drug interactions and better tolerability.
  4,150 1,035 22
RESEARCH PAPERS
Effects of glucocorticoids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors on both clinical and molecular parameters in patients with Takayasu arteritis
Raffaele Serra, Raffaele Grande, Gianluca Buffone, Edoardo Scarcello, Fabio Tripodi, Pierandrea Rende, Luca Gallelli, Stefano de Franciscis
July-September 2014, 5(3):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136101  PMID:25210399
Objective: To explore the effect of sequential treatment with glucocorticoid and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA). Materials and Methods: In five patients with TA, the effects of the sequential treatment with prednisone for 5-7 months and then with adalimumab (ADA) + methotrexate (MTX) or infliximab + MTX, or with ADA only, for 12 months on both clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: All treatments improved both symptoms and laboratory parameters without the development of side-effects. Conclusions: It was hypothesized that MMP-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin could be markers of the response to the treatments.
  2,566 490 20
CASE REPORTS
Hirsutism following the use of bimatoprost eyedrops for glaucoma
Subashini Kaliaperumal, Indu Govindaraj, Praveen Kumar Kopparapu, Shashi Ahuja
July-September 2014, 5(3):208-210
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136110  PMID:25210403
Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) analogues including bimatoprost are often the first line drugs used in the treatment of glaucoma. We present a case of a 62-year-old female patient who was started on bimatoprost in both the eyes for primary open angle glaucoma. The intraocular pressures reached the target level but she developed hair growth over the chin and upper lip after six months of commencing of the treatment. The regional hypertrichosis did not reduce much after stopping the drug. Hirsutism is a potential side effect of prostaglandin analogues which has rarely been reported. Doctors and patients need to be aware of this noticeable and unwanted side effect. The effect seems to occur in patients already having few non-vellus hairs in these areas.
  2,595 459 2
EDITORIAL
Animal experimentation in postgraduate training
Ramasamy Raveendran
July-September 2014, 5(3):179-180
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136095  PMID:25210396
  2,112 785 -
RESEARCH PAPERS
Antidepressant-like effect of a novel 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist N-(benzo[d] thiazol-2-yl)-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide 6k using rodents behavioral battery tests
Yeshwant Kurhe, Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Thangaraj Devadoss, Deepali Gupta
July-September 2014, 5(3):197-202
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136104  PMID:25210400
Objective: To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of N-(benzo[d] thiazol-2-yl)-3- ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide 6k, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonist using rodents behavioral battery tests. Materials and Methods: 6k screening was performed with behavioral assays for depression-like forced swim test (FST) at several single doses (0.25-4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)) to test the potency of 6k, in which 2 and 4 mg/kg doses were found to be most effective and hence, in further behavioral assays including mechanistic model like 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches was performed in mice at acute doses of 6k (2 and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a surgical model-induced behavioral alterations was performed in rats, and the effect of 6k administered orally (2 and 4 mg/kg, p.o.) after subchronic treatment for 14 days starting from day 15 of postsurgery was examined by percent sucrose preference test and modified open field test (OFT). Results: 6k (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming behavior in FST without affecting the baseline locomotor score showing antidepressant-like effect. 5-HTP-induced head twitch response was potentiated by 6k (2 and 4 mg/kg, i.p.), which indicated rise in the serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain. 6k (2 and 4 mg/kg, p.o.) showed anti-anhedonia effect by increasing the sucrose consumption and reversed the behavioral alterations when exposed to modified open field in OBX rats after subchronic treatment for 14 days, thus exhibiting antidepressant-like effect. Conclusion: 6k attenuated the behavioral derangement in rodents-based behavioral battery tests for depression, indicating antidepressant-like potential.
  2,294 400 3
CASE REPORTS
Angioedema due to fixed dose combination of telmisartan plus ramipril
Vishal R Tandon, Annil Mahajan, Vijay Khajuria, Zahid H Gillani
July-September 2014, 5(3):214-216
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136113  PMID:25210405
The risk for angioedema has been suggested lower with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or aliskiren. Many isolated reports do exist, reporting angioedema with ARBs such as olmesartan, valsartan, losartan and telmisartan. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of telmisartan plus ramipril fixed dose combination leading to angioedema from India questioning the rationality of ARBs plus ACEIs combination in the treatment of hypertension.
  2,219 408 2
Netilmicin-induced carpopedal spasm
Roja Y Ramani, Benu Panigrahy, Bandana Rath
July-September 2014, 5(3):211-213
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136112  PMID:25210404
Aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity is not uncommon. Netilmicin being a member of gentamicin family has the advantage of being relatively free from ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity and is also prescribed for gentamicin resistant cases. In spite of these benefits with netilmicin, occasional development of symptomatic hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia due to renal electrolyte wasting cannot be ruled out. Here we describe two cases of carpopedal spasm due to hypocalcemia following use of netilmicin.
  1,899 250 1
Acute delirium in an elderly woman following zoledronate administration
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Mohd Fayazuddin, Mohammad Zahid, Syed Iftekhar
July-September 2014, 5(3):217-219
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136115  PMID:25210406
Zoledronate is a third-generation bisphosphonate having distinctive profile of high potency as well as prolonged duration of action. Intravenous zoledronate is the recently approved bisphosphonate for the treatment of osteoporosis and has an attractive once-yearly regimen for the treatment of osteoporosis. Here we report, for the first time, a case of acute delirium following zoledronate administration for osteoporosis. An 86-year-old female patient presented to orthopedics out-patient department (OPD) with complaints of pain and unable to bear weight on left thigh with history of fall from bed 2 months back. She was diagnosed as fracture neck of femur with severe osteoporosis and treated conservatively. She was given zoledronate IV 5 mg infusion over 30 min. After 10-12 h of zoledronate infusion, patient became confused, disorientated, and agitated. A septic work-up was negative. Electrolyte disturbances were excluded with normal sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels. Computed tomography of the brain was unremarkable. A metabolic cause could not be found for the change in her mental state. Patient was referred to medicine department where she was diagnosed as drug-induced acute delirium probably due to zoledronate. Patient was advised injections haloperidol and torsemide. In the following 48 h, her confusion got cleared and mental status was improved. According to the Naranjo's scale, the effect of zoledronate in our patient was scored 6 indicating a probable likelihood of causing delirium. It was a probable cause of acute delirium according to World Health Organization (WHO) causality scale.
  1,867 262 2
RESEARCH LETTERS
Cannabis use among opioid-dependent individuals on opioid substitution therapy
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Raka Jain
July-September 2014, 5(3):203-205
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136106  PMID:25210401
  1,781 334 2
Sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men on disulfiram or baclofen prophylaxis: A preliminary report
Sandeep Grover, Siddharth Sarkar, Naresh Nebhinani, Surendra K Mattoo, Debasish Basu
July-September 2014, 5(3):205-207
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136108  PMID:25210402
  1,763 291 2
NEWS AND VIEWS
News and review
G Sivagnanam
July-September 2014, 5(3):220-220
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.136116  
  1,018 187 -
New(s): Are these terms new(s)!?
G Sivagnanam
July-September 2014, 5(3):220-221
  931 187 -
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