Table of Contents    
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-93

Blood sample collection in small laboratory animals

Department of the Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India

Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2010

Correspondence Address:
S Parasuraman
Department of the Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.72350

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How to cite this article:
Parasuraman S, Raveendran R, Kesavan R. Blood sample collection in small laboratory animals. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2010;1:87-93

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Parasuraman S, Raveendran R, Kesavan R. Blood sample collection in small laboratory animals. J Pharmacol Pharmacother [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Jan 27];1:87-93. Available from:

Collection of blood from small laboratory animals is necessary for a wide range of scientific research and there are a number of efficient methods available for that. It is important that blood sample collection from experimental animals should be least stressful because stress will affect the outcome of the study. Various regulatory agencies and guidelines have restricted the use of animals and the techniques used for blood collection in laboratory animals. This article deals with the approved blood collection techniques for laboratory animals like rodents, lagomorphs and nonrodents. Permission of the Institute Animal Ethics Committee has been obtained for the use of animals for demonstrating the techniques.

   General Principles of Blood Collection in Animals Top

  • The method of blood collection should be described in the protocol approved by the Institute animal ethics committee.
  • It should be least painful and stressful. Blood sample may be collected under anesthesia [Table 1] or without anesthesia. [1]
  • Adequate training is required for blood collection using any method in any species.
  • In general, blood sample is withdrawn from venous, arterial blood vessels or heart chambers.
  • Frequency of blood collection is important. Once in two weeks is ideal for nonrodents. If the study needs multiple blood samples, lagomorphs (e.g., hares and rabbit) can be used.
  • All nonterminal blood collection without replacement of fluids is limited up to 10% of total circulating blood volume in healthy, normal, adult animals on a single occasion and collection may be repeated after 3 to 4 weeks. In case repeated blood samples are required at short intervals, a maximum of 0.6 ml/kg/day or 1.0% of an animal's total blood volume can be removed every 24 hour. [2],[3]
  • If the study involves repeated blood sample collection, the samples can be withdrawn through a temporary cannula. This may reduce pain and stress in the experimental animals.
  • The estimated blood volume in adult animals is 55 to 70 ml/kg body weight. Care should be taken for older and obese animals. [4] If blood collection volume exceeds more than 10% of total blood volume, fluid replacement may be required. Lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) is recommended as the best fluid replacement by National Institutes of Health (NIH). If the volume of blood collection exceeds more than 30% of the total circulatory blood volume, adequate care should be taken so that the animal does not suffer from hypovolemia. [5]
Table 1: Commonly recommended anesthetic agents (dose/kg) for laboratory animal experiments

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   General Methods for Blood Collection Top

Blood samples are collected using the following techniques: [1]

  • Blood collection not requiring anesthesia
    • Saphenous vein (rat, mice, guinea pig)
    • Dorsal pedal vein (rat, mice)
  • Blood collection requiring anesthesia (local/general anesthesia)
    • Tail vein (rat, mice)
    • Tail snip (mice)
    • Orbital sinus (rat, mice)
    • Jugular vein (rat, mice)
    • Temporary cannula (rat, mice)
    • Blood vessel cannulation (rat, guinea pig, ferret)
    • Tarsal vein (guinea pig)
    • Marginal ear vein/artery (rabbit)
  • Terminal procedure
    • Cardiac puncture (rat, mice, guinea pig, rabbit, ferret)
    • Orbital sinus (rat, mice)
    • Posterior vena cava (rat, mice)

   Procedure for Saphenous Vein Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, rodent handling gloves, towel, cotton, sample collection tubes and 20G needle.

  • Lateral saphenous vein is used for sampling while taking aseptic precautions.
  • The back of the hind leg is shaved with electric trimmer until saphenous vein is visible. Hair removal cream can also be used.
  • The animal is restrained manually or using a suitable animal restrainer.
  • Hind leg is immobilized and slight pressure may be applied gently above the knee joint.
  • The vein is punctured using a 20G needle and enough volume of blood is collected with a capillary tube or a syringe with a needle. The punctured site is compressed to stop the bleeding. While collecting blood:
    • the local anesthetic cream may be applied on the collection site
    • no more than three attempts are made
    • continuous sampling should be avoided and
    • collecting more than four samples in a day (24-hour period) is not advisable.

   Procedure for Dorsal Pedal Vein Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal (rat or mice), rodent handling gloves, cotton, capillary tube, 23G/27G needle and blood sample collection tubes.

  • The animal is kept in a restrainer.
  • The hind foot around ankle is held and medial dorsal pedal vessel is located on top of the foot.
  • The foot is cleaned with absolute alcohol and dorsal pedal vein is punctured with 23G/27G needle.
  • Drops of blood that would appear on the skin surface are collected in a capillary tube and a little pressure is applied to stop the bleeding [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Blood sample collection from rat dorsal pedal vein

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   Procedure for Tail Vein Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, rodent handling gloves, towel, cotton, sample collection tube and animal warming chamber.

  • This method is recommended for collecting a large volume of blood sample (up to 2ml /withdrawal)
  • The animal is made comfortable in a restrainer while maintaining the temperature around at 24 to 27°C.
  • The tail should not be rubbed from the base to the tip as it will result in leukocytosis. If the vein is not visible, the tail is dipped into warm water (40°C).
  • Local aesthetic cream must be applied on the surface of the tail 30 min before the experiment.
  • A 23G needle is inserted into the blood vessel and blood is collected using a capillary tube or a syringe with a needle. In case of difficulties, 0.5 to 1 cm of surface of the skin is cut open and the vein is pricked with bleeding lancet or needle and blood is collected with a capillary tube or a syringe with a needle.
  • Having completed blood collection, pressure/silver nitrate ointment/solution is applied to stop the bleeding.
  • If multiple samples are needed, temporary surgical cannula may be used.
  • Restrainer is washed frequently to avoid/prevent pheromonally induced stress or cross infection [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Blood sample collection from mouse tail vein

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   Procedure for Tail Snip Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, surgical blade and blood sample collection tubes.

  • This method is recommended for blood collection only in mice.
  • This method should be avoided as far as possible because it can cause potential permanent damage on the animal tail. If needed, it should be done under terminal anesthesia only.
  • Before collecting the blood, local anesthesia is applied on the tail and a cut is made 1 mm from the tip of the tail using scalpel blade.
  • Blood flow is stopped by dabbing the tail tip.

   Procedure for Orbital Sinus Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, capillary tube and blood sample collection tubes.

  • This technique is used with recovery in experimental circumstances and this method is also called periorbital, posterior-orbital and orbital venous plexus bleeding.
  • Blood sample is collected under general anesthesia.
  • Topical ophthalmic anesthetic agent is applied to the eye before bleeding.
  • The animal is scruffed with thumb and forefinger of the nondominant hand and the skin around the eye is pulled taut.
  • A capillary is inserted into the medial canthus of the eye (30 degree angle to the nose).
  • Slight thumb pressure is enough to puncture the tissue and enter the plexus/sinus.
  • Once the plexus/sinus is punctured, blood will come through the capillary tube.
  • Once the required volume of blood is collected from plexus, the capillary tube is gently removed and wiped with sterile cotton. Bleeding can be stopped by applying gentle finger pressure.
  • Thirty minutes after blood collection, animal is checked for postoperative and periorbital lesions [Figure 3] and [Figure 4].
  • Caution:
    • Repeated blood sampling is not recommended.
    • Skill is required to collect blood.
    • Even a minor mistake will cause damage to the eyes.
    • Two weeks should be allowed between two bleedings.
  • Adverse effects reported from this method is around 1 to 2% which includes hematoma, corneal ulceration, keratitis, pannus formation, rupture of the globe, damage of the optic nerve and other intraorbital structures and necrotic dacryoadenitis of the harderian gland.
Figure 3: Blood sample collection from rat orbital sinus

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Figure 4: Blood sample collection from mouse orbital sinus

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   Procedure for Jugular Vein Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, 25G needle and blood sample collection tubes.

  • In this method, warming of the animals is not required and is used to collect micro volumes to one ml of blood sample.
  • This method has to be carried out under general/inhalation anesthesia and two persons are needed to collect blood sample.
  • One person has to restrain the animal and monitor the animal. Another person is required to collect the blood sample from the animal.
  • The neck region of the animal is shaved and kept in hyperextended position. The jugular veins appear blue in color and is found 2 to 4 mm lateral to sternoclavicular junction. A 25G needle is inserted in the caudocephalic direction (back to front) and blood is withdrawn slowly to avoid collapse of these small blood vessels. Animal has to be handled carefully and not more than 3 to 4 mm of needle is to be inserted into the blood vessel.
  • If the attempt to collect blood fails, the needle is slowly removed and the site is monitored for bleeding. If there is no bleeding, one more attempt can be made. Further attempts should be avoided in case of bleeding as it may collapse the vein.
  • Finger pressure is applied to stop bleeding.
  • Caution:
    • Number of attempts is limited to three.
    • Apply local anesthetic cream 30 minutes prior to sampling.

   Procedure for Blood Sample Collection with Temporary Cannula Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, 25G needle, animal warming chamber and blood sample collection tubes.

  • Usually a temporary cannulation is made in the tail vein and used for a few hours.
  • The animal is restrained and local anesthetic cream is applied on the tail (1 - 2 cm above the tail tip).
  • The tail is either cannulated or a 25G needle is used.
  • Tail bleeding normally requires the animal to be warmed in order to dilate the blood vessels (37 - 39°C for 5 - 15 min).
  • After cannulation, animal has to be housed individually in large cages.

   Protocol for Blood Vessel Cannulation Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, 25G needle, i.v. cannula, surgical blade, heparin (or any anticoagulant) and blood sample collection tubes.

  • This method involves continuous and multiple sampling in the experimental animal.
  • This method requires close and continuous monitoring of the animal.
  • Usually blood vessel cannulation is done in the femoral artery, femoral vein, carotid artery, jugular vein, vena cava and dorsal aorta.
  • Surgery is required for this method and appropriate anesthesia and analgesia should be used to minimize the pain.
  • After surgical cannulation, animal should be housed singly in a large and spacious cage.
  • Blood sample may be collected over 24 hour at the volume of 0.1 to 0.2 ml/sample.
  • After withdrawing the blood, the cannula is flushed with an anticoagulant and the withdrawn volume may be replaced (if required) with LRS and cannula should be closed tightly [Figure 5].
  • Caution: The experiment has to be conducted fully under aseptic precautions. Infection, hemorrhage, blockage of cannula and swelling around the cannulation site should be looked for. The needle size and maximum blood volume to be collected are given in [Table 2].
Table 2: Needle size used for blood vessel cannulation in different species

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Figure 5: Blood vessel cannulation of rat femoral vein

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   Protocol for Tarsal Vein Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, 22G needle, hair remover and blood sample collection tubes.

  • Tarsal vein is identified in one of the hind legs of large animals. This method is commonly recommended for guinea pig.
  • One person has to restrain the animal properly. Tarsal vein may be visible in blue color.
  • The surface hairs are removed by applying a suitable hair remover. A local anesthetic cream is applied on the collection site.
  • After 20 to 30 minutes, blood sample is collected slowly by using 22G needle.
  • Maximum three samples can be taken per leg and 0.1 to 0.3 ml of blood can be collected per sample.
  • After the sample collection, gentle pressure is applied with finger for 2 minutes to stop bleeding [Figure 6].
  • Caution:
    • Not more than six samples from both hind legs are taken.
    • The number of attempts is three or less.
Figure 6: Blood sample collection from guinea pig tarsal vein

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   Protocol for Marginal Ear Vein/Artery Blood Sample Collection Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, cotton, 26G needle, 95% v/v alcohol, o-Xylene, surgical blade and blood sample collection tube.

  • This method is commonly adopted for rabbits.
  • The animal should be placed in a restrainer.
  • Ear is cleaned with 95% v/v alcohol and local anesthetic cream is applied on the collection site 10 min prior to sampling. (If required, the o-Xylene/topical vasodilator may be applied topically on the collection site to dilate blood vessels).
  • Size 11 surgical blade is used to cut the marginal ear vein and blood is collected in a collecting tube. Otherwise, a 26G needle may be used to collect blood from animal marginal vein.
  • After collecting blood, clean sterile cotton is kept on the collection site and finger pressure is applied to stop the bleeding [Figure 7] and [Figure 8].
Figure 7: Blood sample collection from rabbit marginal ear vein using 26 G needle

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Figure 8: Blood sample collection from rabbit marginal ear vein using incision method.

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   Protocol for Cardiac Puncture Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, towel, cotton, 19 to 25G needle with 1 to 5 ml syringe, surgical blade, tube (internal diameter of 0.1 to 0.3 mm) for thoracotomy, plastic disposable bag and blood sample collection tubes.

  • In general, cardiac puncture is recommended for terminal stage of the study to collect a single, good quality and large volume of blood from the experimental animals.
  • During blood sample collection, animal will be in terminal anesthesia.
  • Appropriate needle is used for blood sample collection with or without thoracotomy. Blood sample will be taken from the heart, preferably from the ventricle slowly to avoid collapsing of heart [Figure 9].
  • Caution: If animal has dextrocardia, sampling may fail.
Figure 9: Blood sample collection through cardiac puncture in rat

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   Protocol for Blood Sample Collection Through Posterior Vena Cava Top

Requirements include animal, anesthetic agent, surgical blade, small glass rods, surgical scissor, 21 to 25G needle with 1 to 5 ml syringe and blood sample collection tube.

  • In general, posterior vena cava blood sample is recommended for terminal stage of the study.
  • Animal have to be anesthetized and 'Y'- or 'V'-shaped cut in the abdomen is made and the intestines are gently removed.
  • The liver is pushed forward and the posterior vena cava (between the kidneys) is identified.
  • 21 to 25G needle is inserted to collect blood from the posterior vena cava.
  • This procedure will be repeated three to four times to collect more volume of blood sample.

   Discussion Top

Blood collection from the experimental animals is one of the important procedures in biomedical research. Even a small error in the collection procedure may lead to a lot of variation in the results.

Points to be remembered

  • Before starting any kind of blood sample collection, it must be ensured that all chemical, surgical, fluid requirements are available in the working site.
  • Not more than two to three attempts should be made to collect any kind of in vitro biological sample (excluding biological secretion).
  • The blood collection tube must be labeled before starting the experiment and blood sample collected in the appropriately labeled collection tube.

   References Top

Hoff J, Rlagt LV. Methods of blood collection in the mouse. Lab animals 2000;29:47-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
Blood sampling online. 2009; [12 screens]. Available from: [Last cited on 2010 Feb 24].   Back to cited text no. 2
Guidelines for Survival Bleeding of Mice and Rats. NIH-ARAC Guidelines [online]. 2005 Jan 12. Available from: [accessed on 2010 Mar 09].  Back to cited text no. 3
McGuill MW, Rowan AN. Biological Effects of Blood Loss: Implications for Sampling Volumes and Techniques. ILAR J 1989. p. 31.  Back to cited text no. 4
Procedure for rabbit blood collection [online]. Available from: [Last cited on 2010 Feb 23].  Back to cited text no. 5
CPCSEA guidelines for laboratory animal facility. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:257-74.  Back to cited text no. 6
Vogel HG, editor. Drug discovery and evaluation: Pharmacological assays. 2 nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 7
Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals at UCSF [online]. Available from: [Last cited on 2010 Feb 24]. and Available from: [Last cited on 2010 Feb 24].  Back to cited text no. 8
Hem A, Smith AJ, Solberg P. Saphenous vein puncture for blood sampling of the mouse, rat, hamster, gerbil, guinea pig, ferret and mink. Lab Anim 1998;32:364-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Paulose CS, Dakshinamurti K. Chronic catheterization using vascular-access-port in rats: Blood sampling with minimal stress for plasma catecholamine determination. J Neurosci Methods 1987;22:141-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
Yoburn BC, Morales R, Inturrisi CE. Chronic vascular catheterization in the rat: Comparison of three techniques. Physiol Behav 1984;33:89-94.  Back to cited text no. 11


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

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34 Formulation, Pharmacokinetics evaluation, and IVIVC Assessment of Gliclazide Multiparticulates in Rat Model
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36 Thymoquinone Preserves Pancreatic Islets Structure Through Upregulation of Pancreatic ß-Catenin in Hypothyroid Rats
Khadija Faddladdeen, Soad Shaker Ali, Safia Bahshwan, Nasra Ayuob
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37 Infection Pressure is Necessary, but not Sufficient by Itself, to Explain Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Intermediate Host Species
Patrick L. Taggart, Bronwyn A. Fancourt, Wayne S. J. Boardman, David E. Peacock, Charles G. B. Caraguel
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Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2021; 15(3): 1429
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39 Simulated microgravity alters the expression of plasma SSAO and its enzymatic activity in healthy rats and increases the mortality in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetes
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40 Design and development of mechanically operated blood collection and monitoring device
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41 Regulation of IL-6/STAT-3/Wnt axis by nifuroxazide dampens colon ulcer in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis model: Novel mechanistic insight
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42 In vivo therapeutic evaluation of a novel bis-lawsone derivative against tumor following delivery using mesoporous silica nanoparticle based redox-responsive drug delivery system
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43 Role of peripheral and central sensitization in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of hecogenin acetate, an acetylated sapogenin, complexed with ß-cyclodextrin: Involvement of NF?B and p38 MAPK pathways
Fabiolla Rocha Santos Passos, Erik W.M. Pereira, Luana Heimfarth, Brenda S. Monteiro, Yasmim Maria Barbosa Gomes de Carvalho, Pollyana S. Siqueira-Lima, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Rosana S.S. Barreto, Laurent Picot, Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior, Jullyana S.S. Quintans
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44 Limonene, a Citrus monoterpene, non-complexed and complexed with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin attenuates acute and chronic orofacial nociception in rodents: evidence for involvement of the PKA and PKC pathway.
Erik W.M. Pereira, Luana Heimfarth, Tiffany KB. Santos, Fabiolla R.S. Passos, Pollyana Siqueira-Lima, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T. Scotti, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Adriana R. Campos, Henrique D.M. Coutinho, Patrick Martin, Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior, Jullyana S.S. Quintans
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45 Evaluation of anti-diabetic and antihypertensive activity of Phoenix sylvestris (L.)Roxb leaves extract and quantification of biomarker Quercetin by HPTLC
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Phytomedicine Plus. 2021; 1(4): 100136
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46 HPLC-DAD-UV analysis, anti-inflammatory and anti-neuropathic effects of methanolic extract of Sideritis bilgeriana (lamiaceae) by NF-?B, TNF-a, IL-1ß and IL-6 involvement
Mariana R.M. Cavalcanti, Fabiolla R.S. Passos, Brenda Souza Monteiro, Sathiyabama R. Gandhi, Luana Heimfarth, Bruno S. Lima, Yuri M. Nascimento, Marcelo Cavalcante Duarte, Adriano A.S. Araujo, Irwin R.A. Menezes, Henrique D.M. Coutinho, Gökhan Zengin, Ramazan Ceylan, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior, Jullyana S.S. Quintans
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47 Effect of water extracts from Cynanchum thesioides (Freyn) K. Schum. on visceral hypersensitivity and gut microbiota profile in maternally separated rats
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48 The C-terminus of Brucella abortus MviN induces humoral and cell mediated immune responses in BALB/c mice that protects against the virulent Brucella 544 challenge
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49 Assessment of the efficacy of intra-articular platelet rich plasma treatment in an ACLT experimental model by dynamic contrast enhancement MRI of knee subchondral bone marrow and MRI T2 measurement of articular cartilage
G.-S. Huang, Y.-J. Peng, D.W. Hwang, H.-S. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, S.-W. Chiang, Y.-C. Hsu, Y.-C. Liu, M.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Wang
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50 Destructive effect of iron overload in brain tissue of albino rats: Ameliorative role of silver immobilized organo-modified casein nanocomposite as co-treating agent with Deferasirox
Rana M. Adel, Rania A. Lotfy, Atef S. Darwish, Amany S. Amer
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51 Dietary biotin supplementation increases proliferation pathways in mice testes without affecting serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and stem cell factor expression
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52 Sulfated non-anticoagulant low molecular weight heparin in the prevention of cancer and non-cancer associated thrombosis without compromising hemostasis
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53 Trends in biomedical analysis of red blood cells – Raman spectroscopy against other spectroscopic, microscopic and classical techniques
Jakub Dybas, Fatih Celal Alcicek, Aleksandra Wajda, Magdalena Kaczmarska, Anna Zimna, Katarzyna Bulat, Aneta Blat, Tetiana Stepanenko, Tasnim Mohaissen, Ewa Szczesny-Malysiak, David Perez-Guaita, Bayden R. Wood, Katarzyna Maria Marzec
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54 Amelioration of pulmonary aflatoxicosis by green tea extract: An in vivo study
Heba El-Sayed Mostafa, Amal Nooredeen Ahmed Allithy, Nassar Ayoub Abdellatif, Maha Anani, Shimaa Antar Fareed, Dalia Abdallah El-Shafei, Eman Ahmed Alaa El-Din
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55 Tick infestation effects on haemoglobin levels of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)
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56 Administration of ursolic acid to new-born pups prevents dietary fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Sprague Dawley rats
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57 AAV9-mediated Schwann cell-targeted gene therapy rescues a model of demyelinating neuropathy
Alexia Kagiava, Christos Karaiskos, Jan Richter, Christina Tryfonos, Matthew J. Jennings, Amanda J. Heslegrave, Irene Sargiannidou, Marina Stavrou, Henrik Zetterberg, Mary M. Reilly, Christina Christodoulou, Rita Horvath, Kleopas A. Kleopa
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58 Local delivery of hydrogel encapsulated vascular endothelial growth factor for the prevention of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw
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59 Low striatal T3 is implicated in inattention and memory impairment in an ADHD mouse model overexpressing thyroid hormone-responsive protein
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61 Hollow PtCo alloy nanospheres as a high-Z and oxygen generating nanozyme for radiotherapy enhancement in non-small cell lung cancer
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62 Dietary chromium-methionine supplementation and broiler (22–43 days) responses during heat stress. 1. Growth performance and carcass yield, metabolisable energy and serum biochemistry
Felipe Santos Dalólio, Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino, Jadir Nogueira da Silva, Alba Kyonara Alves Tenório Fireman, Álvaro Mário Burin Junior, Marcos Busanello, Valdir Ribeiro Júnior
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63 Age-related differences in hypoxia-associated genes and cytokine profile in male Wistar rats
Dzhuliia Dzhalilova, Anna Kosyreva, Polina Vishnyakova, Natalia Zolotova, Ivan Tsvetkov, Vladimir Mkhitarov, Liliya Mikhailova, Lev Kakturskiy, Olga Makarova
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64 Physiological and proteomic profiles of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense parasite isolated from suramin responsive and non-responsive HAT patients in Busoga, Uganda
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65 A CRISPR/Cas12a-assisted on-fibre immunosensor for ultrasensitive small protein detection in complex biological samples
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66 An overview of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models for studying the transport of drugs across intestinal barriers
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67 ALDH2 deficiency induces atrial fibrillation through dysregulated cardiac sodium channel and mitochondrial bioenergetics: A multi-omics analysis
Yu-Feng Hu, Chih-Hsun Wu, Tsung-Ching Lai, Yu-Chan Chang, Ming-Jing Hwang, Ting-Yung Chang, Ching-Hui Weng, Peter Mu-Hsin Chang, Che-Hong Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Chi-Ying F. Huang, Shih-Ann Chen
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68 CD133+CD34+ cells can give rise to EPCs: A comparative rabbit and human study
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69 Asymmetric composite wound nanodressing with superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic alternate pattern for reducing blood loss and adhesion
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70 Micromonospora species from rarely-exploited Egyptian habitats: chemical profile, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities through antioxidant property
Mohamed S. Nafie, Noha M. Awad, Hend M. Tag, Ibrahim M. Abd El-Salam, Mohamed K. Diab, Sahar A. El-Shatoury
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71 Developmental toxicity of lead in rats after gestational exposure and the protective role of taurine
Hoda Samir Aglan, Marwa M Safar, Afaf Abdel-Moniem Ain-Shoka, Asmaa Munir Kandil, Samuel Gebremedhn, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Karl Schellander, Dawit Tesfaye
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72 Nutritional ecology and ecological immunology in degus: Does early nutrition affect the postnatal development of the immune function?
Natalia Ramírez-Otarola, Karin Maldonado, Grisel Cavieres, Francisco Bozinovic, Pablo Sabat
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology. 2021; 335(2): 239
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73 Contribution of perfusion to the 11 C-acetate signal in brown adipose tissue assessed by DCE-MRI and 68 Ga-DOTA PET in a rat model
Gabriel Richard, Christophe Noll, Mélanie Archambault, Réjean Lebel, Luc Tremblay, Samia Ait-Mohand, Brigitte Guérin, Denis P. Blondin, André C. Carpentier, Martin Lepage
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2021; 85(3): 1625
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74 Combined lead and zinc oxide-nanoparticles induced thyroid toxicity through 8-OHdG oxidative stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and Nrf2 activation in rats
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75 Aspergillus awamori positively impacts the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidative activity and immune responses of growing rabbits
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76 Nonwetting Nanostructured Hemostatic Material for Bleeding Control with Minimal Adhesion
Yuan Li, Fei Niu, Xiaotong Zhao, Choon Hwai Yap, Zhe Li
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77 Electrospun Nanofibers for Wound Management
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78 Direct and Indirect Measurements of Sex Hormones in Rodents During Fear Conditioning
Antonio Florido, Laura Perez-Caballero, Eric Raúl Velasco, Patricia Molina, Ignacio Marin-Blasco, Raül Andero
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79 Raptinal silver nanoparticles: new therapeutic advances in hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model
Heba Taha, Nourhan Elfar, Hesham Haffez, Zeineb A. Hassan
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80 Short-Term Environmental Enrichment is a Stronger Modulator of Brain Glial Cells and Cervical Lymph Node T Cell Subtypes than Exercise or Combined Exercise and Enrichment
Gaurav Singhal, Julie Morgan, Frances Corrigan, Catherine Toben, Magdalene C. Jawahar, Emily J. Jaehne, Jim Manavis, Anthony J. Hannan, Bernhard T. Baune
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 2021; 41(3): 469
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81 Treatment of chemotherapy-induced cachexia with BST204: a multimodal validation study
Ho-jin Kim, Su Jung Kim, Chul-Woong Woo, Sang-Tae Kim, Minju Im, Sun Kyu Park, Jeom-Yong Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Dong-Cheol Woo, Jeong Kon Kim
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82 Targeting the RNA-Binding Protein HuR Alleviates Neuroinflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Potential Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
Vittoria Borgonetti, Maria Domenica Sanna, Laura Lucarini, Nicoletta Galeotti
Neurotherapeutics. 2021; 18(1): 412
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83 Toxicity profile of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits extract in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats
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84 Nephroprotective effect of Vanillic acid in STZ-induced diabetic rats
Savita Kumari, Anjoo Kamboj, Manish Wanjari, Anil Kumar Sharma
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85 Germinated barley downregulates hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 enzyme gene expression in a hepatic steatohepatitis rat model
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86 Vitamin D dietary supplementation ameliorates the complications associated with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin
Fatma Hassan, El-Said El-Sherbini El-Said, Gehad R. El-sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Walaa F. Awadin
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87 Comparative study of innovative blends prepared by fortification of date powder to alleviate child malnutrition
Nighat Raza, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Farhan Saeed, Umar Farooq, Ambreen Naz, Mian Shamas Murtaza, Huma Badar Ul Ain, Tabussam Tufail, Muhammad Imran, Faqir Muhammad Anjum
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88 Quantification of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Isolated From Mouse Tissues
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89 A role for mast cells and mast cell tryptase in driving neutrophil recruitment in LPS-induced lung inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2 in mice
Aline Dias de Almeida, Irismara Sousa Silva, Weslley Fernandes-Braga, Antônio Carlos Melo LimaFilho, R odrigo Machado Florentino, Ayslan Barra, Luciana de Oliveira Andrade, M. Fátima Leite, Geovanni Dantas Cassali, André Klein
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90 Ameliorative activity of Adansonia digitata fruit on high sugar/high fat diet-simulated Metabolic Syndrome model in male Wistar rats
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91 Autophagy associated with the efficacy of valproic acid in PTZ-induced epileptic rats
Yan Wang, Guangfei Wang, Jie Tao, Xiaoxia Li, Lan Hu, Qin Li, Jinmiao Lu, Youbin Li, Zhiping Li
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92 Purification and in vivo stability and half-life of recombinant lipid modified staphylokinase
Sheethal Thomas Mannully, V.P.B. Rekha, N. Singh, C. Shanthi, K.K. Pulicherla
Biologicals. 2020; 64: 15
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93 The role of apoptosis and autophagy in the insulin-enhancing activity of oxovanadium(IV) bipyridine complex in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
Eman Salah El-Shafey, Eslam Samy Elsherbiny
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94 Intranasal delivery of topiramate nanoemulsion: Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and brain uptake studies
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95 Effects of aging on the motor, cognitive and affective behaviors, neuroimmune responses and hippocampal gene expression
Gaurav Singhal, Julie Morgan, Magdalene C. Jawahar, Frances Corrigan, Emily J. Jaehne, Catherine Toben, James Breen, Stephen M. Pederson, Jim Manavis, Anthony J. Hannan, Bernhard T. Baune
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96 New formulations based on salicyl-imine-chitosan hydrogels for prolonged drug release
Manuela-Maria Iftime, Liliana Mititelu Tartau, Luminita Marin
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97 Pomegranate-derived anthocyanin regulates MORs-cAMP/CREB-BDNF pathways in opioid-dependent models and improves cognitive impairments
Norhaslinda Ridzwan, Mimie Noratiqah Jumli, Atif Amin Baig, Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin
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98 Guidelines for the experimental design of pharmacokinetic studies with nanomaterials in preclinical animal models
Michael S. Valic, Michael Halim, Pamela Schimmer, Gang Zheng
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99 Murine hepatoma treatment with mature dendritic cells stimulated by Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory products
Jing Ding, Xiaolei Liu, Bin Tang, Xue Bai, Yang Wang, Shicun Li, Jian Li, Mingyuan Liu, Xuelin Wang
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100 The effects of exercise treatment on learning and memory ability, and cognitive performance in diet-induced prediabetes animals
Mluleki Luvuno, Andile Khathi, Musa V. Mabandla
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101 Sex differences of inflammatory and immune response in pups of Wistar rats with SIRS
Anna M. Kosyreva, Dzhuliia Sh. Dzhalilova, Olga V. Makarova, Ivan S. Tsvetkov, Natalia A. Zolotova, Marina A. Diatroptova, Elena A. Ponomarenko, Vladimir A. Mkhitarov, Dmitriy N. Khochanskiy, Liliya P. Mikhailova
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102 Direct Quantification of Single Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin Concentration with Multiphoton Microscopy
Andrew T. Francis, Melanie J. Shears, Sean C. Murphy, Dan Fu
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103 Are pigs a suitable animal model for in vivo metabolism studies of new psychoactive substances? A comparison study using different in vitro/in vivo tools and U-47700 as model drug
Frederike Nordmeier, Adrian Doerr, Matthias W. Laschke, Michael D. Menger, Peter H. Schmidt, Nadine Schaefer, Markus R. Meyer
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104 Protocol for Monitoring DNA-Triggered cGAS/STING Signaling in Mammalian Cells and Mice
Ying Wang, Zhe Ma, Blossom Damania, Pengda Liu
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105 The guinea pig model for tick-borne spotted fever rickettsioses: A second look
John V. Stokes, David H. Walker, Andrea S. Varela-Stokes
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106 Histopathological and biochemical alterations of the parotid gland induced by experimental hypothyroidism in adult male rats and the possible therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa oil
Wael Amin Nasr El-Din, Islam Omar Abdel Fattah
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107 Gamma irradiated protease from Echis pyramidum venom: A promising immunogen to improve viper bites treatment
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108 Formulation and evaluation of cyclodextrin-based nanosponges of griseofulvin as pediatric oral liquid dosage form for enhancing bioavailability and masking bitter taste
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109 The hidden hazardous effects of stevia and sucralose consumption in male and female albino mice in comparison to sucrose
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110 CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced spermatogenesis dysfunction via autophagy activation
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111 Immunomodulation of tahneeq method in IL-12 and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte, an in-vivo study in neonatal rats
Susilorini, Suradi, Dono Indarto, Brian Wasita, Poppy Diah Palupi
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112 The effect of different sample collection methods on rabbit blood parameters
Martin Massányi, Ladislav Kohút, María-José Argente, Marko Halo, Anton Kovácik, Eva Kováciková, Lubomír Ondruška, Grzegorz Formicki, Peter Massányi
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113 High-dose vitamin D administration and resistance exercise training attenuate the progression of obesity and improve skeletal muscle function in obese p62-deficient mice
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114 Tumor targeted delivery of umbelliferone via a smart mesoporous silica nanoparticles controlled-release drug delivery system for increased anticancer efficiency
Mousumi Kundu, Sharmistha Chatterjee, Noyel Ghosh, Prasenjit Manna, Joydeep Das, Parames C. Sil
Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020; 116: 111239
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115 Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) Regulates Neuronal Density and IGF-2 Distribution Following Hippocampal Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Farzaneh Vafaee, Asadollah Zarifkar, Masoumeh Emamghoreishi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Shima Shirzad, Hamed Ghazavi, Vahid Mahdavizadeh
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2020; 29(10): 105128
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116 Immunomodulatory Effect of Sodium Saccharin and Potassium Acesulfame in BALB/C Mice in Short-Term Trials
Asma Remil, Mohammed Benali
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2020; 10(6): 1
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117 In-Vitro and In-Vivo Evaluation of Supersaturable Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) of Dutasteride
Poonguzhali Subramanian, P. S. Rajnikanth, Manish Kumar, Kumarappan Chidambram
Current Drug Delivery. 2020; 17(1): 74
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118 Blockade of Renin Angiotensin System Ameliorates the Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sympathetic Neural Remodeling in Hearts of Type 2 DM Rat Model
Yomna M. Yehya, Abdelaziz M. Hussein, Khaled Ezam, Elsayed A. Eid, Eman M. Ibrahim, Mohamed A.F.E. Sarhan, Aya Elsayed, Mohamed E. Sarhan
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets. 2020; 20(3): 464
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119 Insight on Ameliorative Role of Selenium Nanoparticles and Niacin in Wound Healing on Adult Female Albino Mice
Marwa Emam, Akaber T. Keshta, Yasser M.A. Mohamed, Yasser A. Attia
Current Chemical Biology. 2020; 14(3): 169
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120 Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of combined milk thistle and fenugreek seeds in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats
Mohamed Jamal Saadh
Veterinary World. 2020; 13(8): 1732
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121 Modified comet assay with Giemsa staining: a suitable method for assessing genotoxicity in rats
M.A.B. Fagiani, A. Fluminhan, E. Araújo, L.S.L.S. Reis
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 2020; 72(3): 853
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122 Live vaccine consisting of attenuated Salmonella secreting and delivering Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 induces humoral and cellular immune responses and protects mice against virulent Brucella abortus 544 challenge
Amal Senevirathne, Chamith Hewawaduge, John Hwa Lee
Veterinary Research. 2020; 51(1)
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123 Investigation of the Healing Effects of Afyonkarahisar Region Hot Spring Waters' Inhalation on Experimentally Induced Asthma in Mice
Bülent ELITOK, Yavuz ULUSOY, KILIC Bahadir, Constantin Munteanu
Balneo Research Journal. 2020; 11(Vol.11, no): 261
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124 Exploration of anti-breast cancer effects of Terminalia chebula extract on DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague Dawley rats
Deena Priscilla Henry, Jasmine Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar Murugan, Annapoorani Sivanantham, Manikandan Alagumuthu
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 6(1)
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125 Preterm intraventricular hemorrhage in vitro: modeling the cytopathology of the ventricular zone
Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, James P. McAllister, Diego M. Morales, Steven L. Brody, Albert M. Isaacs, David D. Limbrick
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS. 2020; 17(1)
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126 Phagocyte activity reflects mammalian homeo- and hetero-thermic physiological states
Jiri Pikula, Tomas Heger, Hana Bandouchova, Veronika Kovacova, Monika Nemcova, Ivana Papezikova, Vladimir Piacek, Renata Zajícková, Jan Zukal
BMC Veterinary Research. 2020; 16(1)
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127 Cystatin C in Evaluating Renal Function in Ureteral Calculi Hydronephrosis in Adults
Weipu Mao, Shenghua Liu, Keyi Wang, Miao Wang, Heng Shi, Qunlong Liu, Meiyu Bao, Bo Peng, Jiang Geng
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research. 2020; 45(1): 109
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128 Self-Maintenance of Cardiac Resident Reparative Macrophages Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy Through the SR-A1-c-Myc Axis
Hanwen Zhang, Andi Xu, Xuan Sun, Yaqing Yang, Lai Zhang, Hui Bai, Jingjing Ben, Xudong Zhu, Xiaoyu Li, Qing Yang, Zidun Wang, Wei Wu, Di Yang, Yongjie Zhang, Yong Xu, Qi Chen
Circulation Research. 2020; 127(5): 610
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129 In Vivo Diuretic Activity of Hydromethanolic Extract and Solvent Fractions of the Root Bark of Clerodendrum myricoides Hochst. (Lamiaceae)
Gebrelibanos Gebremichael Welu, Ebrahim M. Yimer, Haftom Gebregergs Hailu, Dayananda Bhoumik, Mehari Meles Lema, Fadia S. Youssef
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; 2020: 1
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130 Fortified S-Allyl L-Cysteine: Animal Safety, Effect on Retinal Ischemia, and Role of Wnt in the Underlying Therapeutic Mechanism
Windsor Wen-Jin Chao, Yu-Kuang Chen, Howard Wen-Haur Chao, Wynn Hwai-Tzong Pan, Hsiao-Ming Chao, Khalid Rahman
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; 2020: 1
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131 Thymoquinone Upregulates Catalase Gene Expression and Preserves the Structure of the Renal Cortex of Propylthiouracil-Induced Hypothyroid Rats
Nasra Ayuob, Maha Jameal Balgoon, Ahmed A. El-Mansy, Wafaa A. Mubarak, Alaa El-Din L. Firgany
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2020; 2020: 1
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132 Probiotics Fermented Bitter Melon Juice as Promising Complementary Agent for Diabetes Type 2: Study on Animal Model
Laksmi Hartajanie, S. Fatimah-Muis, K. Heri-Nugroho HS, Ign Riwanto, M. Sulchan
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2020; 2020: 1
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133 The Effect of Palm Oil-Fried Street Kokor on Liver and Kidney Biomarkers of Swiss Albino Mice
Hailemariam Amsalu, Tesaka Wondimnew, Tigist Mateos, Minale Fekadie, Gesese Bogale, Philip W. Wertz
Journal of Lipids. 2020; 2020: 1
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134 Catalytic activities of cocaine hydrolases against the most toxic cocaine metabolite norcocaethylene
Xirong Zheng, Xiabin Chen, Ting Zhang, Max Zhan, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2020; 18(10): 1968
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135 Aberrant activation of hepatocyte growth factor/MET signaling promotes ß-catenin–mediated prostatic tumorigenesis
Joseph Aldahl, Jiaqi Mi, Ariana Pineda, Won Kyung Kim, Adam Olson, Erika Hooker, Yongfeng He, Eun-Jeong Yu, Vien Le, Dong-Hoon Lee, Joseph Geradts, Zijie Sun
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2020; 295(2): 631
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136 Insignificant antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extracts of seeds of Archidendron pauciflorum
Sundarasekar Jeevandran, Sahgal Geethaa, WongJin Yi, SeeWei Yuan, Subramani Parasuraman, Sundram Karupiah
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results. 2020; 11(1): 47
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137 Beneficial Effects of Newly Isolated Akkermansia muciniphila Strains from the Human Gut on Obesity and Metabolic Dysregulation
Meng Yang, Shambhunath Bose, Sookyoung Lim, JaeGu Seo, JooHyun Shin, Dokyung Lee, Won-Hyong Chung, Eun-Ji Song, Young-Do Nam, Hojun Kim
Microorganisms. 2020; 8(9): 1413
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138 Fermented Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Alleviates DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice through Modulating Immune Balance and Skin Barrier Function
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Nutrients. 2020; 12(1): 249
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139 Gender Disparity Impacts on Thymus Aging and LHRH Receptor Antagonist-Induced Thymic Reconstitution Following Chemotherapeutic Damage
Michael Ly Hun, Kahlia Wong, Josephine Rahma Gunawan, Abdulaziz Alsharif, Kylie Quinn, Ann P. Chidgey
Frontiers in Immunology. 2020; 11
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140 Measurement of phagocyte activity in heterotherms
Tomáš Heger, Jan Zukal, Veronika Seidlová, Monika Nemcová, David Necas, Ivana Papežíková, Vladimír Piacek, Renata Zajícková, Hana Bandouchová, Jirí Pikula
Acta Veterinaria Brno. 2020; 89(1): 79
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141 Disulfiram/Copper Induces Antitumor Activity against Both Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts through ROS/MAPK and Ferroptosis Pathways
Yiqiu Li, Fangfang Chen, Jun Chen, Siocheong Chan, Yi He, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
Cancers. 2020; 12(1): 138
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142 Humane Use of Cardiac Puncture for Non-Terminal Phlebotomy of Wild-Caught and Released Peromyscus spp.
Scott C. Williams, Megan A. Linske, Kirby C. Stafford
Animals. 2020; 10(5): 826
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143 Kupffer Cells Sense Free Fatty Acids and Regulate Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet and Inflammation
Kira L. Diehl, Julia Vorac, Kristina Hofmann, Philippa Meiser, Iris Unterweger, Lars Kuerschner, Heike Weighardt, Irmgard Förster, Christoph Thiele
Cells. 2020; 9(10): 2258
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144 Impact of the Sensory and Sympathetic Nervous System on Fracture Healing in Ovariectomized Mice
Tanja Niedermair, Rainer H. Straub, Christoph Brochhausen, Susanne Grässel
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(2): 405
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145 Influence of Forest Disturbance on La Crosse Virus Risk in Southwestern Virginia
M. Camille Hopkins, Steven D. Zink, Sally L. Paulson, Dana M. Hawley
Insects. 2019; 11(1): 28
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146 Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) alleviates hepatic steatosis by increasing hepatic lipid turnover and inhibiting the mTORC1 signaling axis in hepatocytes
Qi Peng, Bin Chen, Hao Wang, Ying Zhu, Jinghong Wu, Yetao Luo, Guowei Zuo, Jinyong Luo, Lan Zhou, Qiong Shi, Yaguang Weng, Ailong Huang, Tong-Chuan He, Jiaming Fan
Aging. 2019; 11(23): 11520
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147 Bioactive–hybrid–zirconia implant surface for enhancing osseointegration: an in vivo study
Dawlat Mostafa,Moustafa Aboushelib
International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2018; 4(1)
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148 Conducting and reporting animal experimentation: Quo vadis?
Silvina L. Diaz
European Journal of Neuroscience. 2018;
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149 Biomolecular changes and cortical neurodegenerative lesions in Trichinella spiralis infected BALB/c mice: a preliminary study elucidating a potential relationship between systemic helminthic infections and idiopathic Parkinson’s
M. Hasby Saad, O. Safwat, D. El-Guindy, R. Raafat, D. Elgendy, E. Hasby
Helminthologia. 2018; 55(4): 261
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150 Clinical examination methods and investigation into the occurrence of endoparasites, Borna disease virus and genetic variability in the garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus
Dominik Fischer,Luisa Ziegler,Katrin Hail,Julia Heckmann,Tobias Erik Reiners,Christian Bauer,Michael Lierz,Johannes Lang
Folia Zoologica. 2018; 67(2): 60
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151 a-lipoic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis through the suppression of the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway and autophagy
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Molecular Medicine Reports. 2018;
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152 Fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 as a potential mucosal adjuvant enhances mucosal and systemic immune responses to enterovirus 71 vaccine
Yu-Li Lin,Pei-Yun Cheng,Chiao-Li Chin,Li-Min Huang,Shr-Yu Lin,Bor-Luen Chiang
Vaccine. 2018; 36(29): 4331
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153 Real-time Multimodal Bioimaging of Cancer Cells and Exosomes through Biosynthesized Iridium and Iron Nanoclusters
Sana Shaikh,Fawad ur Rehman,Tianyu Du,Hui Jiang,Lihong Yin,Xuemei Wang,Renjie Chai
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2018;
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154 Hemostatic Swabs Containing Polydopamine-like Catecholamine Chitosan-Catechol for Normal and Coagulopathic Animal Models
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ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. 2018;
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155 Selective Photoinduced Antibacterial Activity of Amoxicillin-Coated Gold Nanoparticles: From One-Step Synthesis to in Vivo Cytocompatibility
M. Jazmín Silvero C.,Diamela M. Rocca,Emilce Artur de la Villarmois,Kelsey Fournier,Anabel E. Lanterna,Mariela F. Pérez,M. Cecilia Becerra,Juan C. Scaiano
ACS Omega. 2018; 3(1): 1220
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156 In vivo formation of protein corona on gold nanoparticles. The effect of their size and shape
Rafaela García-Álvarez,Marilena Hadjidemetriou,Ana Sánchez-Iglesias,Luis M. Liz-Marzán,Kostas Kostarelos
Nanoscale. 2018;
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157 Reproductive toxic impact of subchronic treatment with combined butylparaben and triclosan in weanling male rats
Madeha A. Riad,Marwa M. Abd-Rabo,Samy A. Abd El Aziz,Adel M. El Behairy,Mohamed M. Badawy
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2018; : e22037
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158 Optimization of Weight Ratio for DSPE-PEG/TPGS Hybrid Micelles to Improve Drug Retention and Tumor Penetration
Ya Jin,Zimei Wu,Caibin Li,Weisai Zhou,John P. Shaw,Bruce C. Baguley,Jianping Liu,Wenli Zhang
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159 Preliminary phytochemical studies and biological effects of methanol extract of Caloncoba echinata in mice
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160 Modulatory Effect of the Intracellular Content of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 Against the Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats
J. E. Aguilar-Toalá,H. Astiazarán-García,M.C. Estrada-Montoya,H. S. Garcia,B. Vallejo-Cordoba,A. F. González-Córdova,A. Hernández-Mendoza
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161 Antiplasmodial activity of two medicinal plants against clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei infected mice
Serge David Dago Attemene,Sylvain Beourou,Karim Tuo,Albert Alloh Gnondjui,Abibatou Konate,Andre Offianan Toure,Seraphin Kati-Coulibaly,Joseph Alico Djaman
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162 Progress towards in vivo brain 13C-MRS in mice: Metabolic flux analysis in small tissue volumes
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163 The effects of thawing on the plasma metabolome: evaluating differences between thawed plasma and multi-organ samples
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164 Blocking of cytokines signalling attenuates evoked and spontaneous neuropathic pain behaviours in the paclitaxel rat model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy
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165 Effect of administration of high-protein diet in rats submitted to resistance training
Thiago da Rosa Lima,Eudes Thiago Pereira Ávila,Géssica Alves Fraga,Mariana de Souza Sena,Arlyson Batista de Souza Dias,Paula Caroline de Almeida,Joice Cristina dos Santos Trombeta,Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior,Amílcar Sabino Damazo,James Wilfred Navalta,Jonato Prestes,Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
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166 Transnasomucosal mucoadhesive microemulsion of zaltoprofen: A comparative brain distribution study
Surjyanarayan Mandal,Snigdha Das Mandal,Krishna Chuttani,Abhay Dharamsi,Bharat bhushan Subudhi
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2017; 39: 237
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167 Animal models for evaluation of oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals
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168 A Novel High Drug Loading Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Hybrid Nanoparticle as a pH-Sensitive Vehicle for Drug Delivery
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2017;
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169 Sampling only ten microliters of whole blood for the quantification of poorly soluble drugs: Itraconazole as case study
Justine Thiry,Brigitte Evrard,Gwenaël Nys,Marianne Fillet,Miranda G.M. Kok
Journal of Chromatography A. 2017; 1479: 161
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170 Insight into stereoselective disposition of enantiomers of a potent antithrombotic agent, S002-333 following administration of the racemic compound to mice
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European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 101: 107
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171 The fibrinogen-like domain of FREP1 protein is a broad-spectrum malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen
Guodong Niu,Caio Franc?a,Genwei Zhang,Wanlapa Roobsoong,Wang Nguitragool,Xiaohong Wang,Jetsumon Prachumsri,Noah S. Butler,Jun Li
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017; 292(28): 11960
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172 Development of an athyroid mouse model using 131I ablation after preparation with a low-iodine diet
Ji Min Oh,Ho Won Lee,Senthilkumar Kalimuthu,Prakash Gangadaran,Se Hwan Baek,Man-Hoon Han,Chae Moon Hong,Shin Young Jeong,Sang-Woo Lee,Jaetae Lee,Byeong-Cheol Ahn
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173 An innovative approach for serial injection in marginal vein and blood collection from auricular artery in New Zealand white Rabbit
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174 Effects of the dietary carbohydrate–fat ratio on plasma phosphatidylcholine profiles in human and mouse
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175 Quantitative determination of carfilzomib in mouse plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study
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176 Hepatoprotective Effect of Rutin Against Oxidative Stress of Isoniazid in Albino Rats
Osama Abdel-Ghaf,Salwa Thabet Mahmoud,Azza Ali Said,Fatma Abdel-Azee
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177 A Novel Stopped-Flow Assay for Quantitating Carbonic-Anhydrase Activity and Assessing Red-Blood-Cell Hemolysis
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Frontiers in Physiology. 2017; 8
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178 Lavandula angustifolia and combination of Lavandula angustifolia and Zataria multiflora administration attenuates prenatal lead-exposed induced learning and memory impairments in male rats
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179 Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells therapy for acute kidney injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a rat model
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180 Neuroadaptations of presynaptic and postsynaptic GABAB receptor function in the paraventricular nucleus in response to chronic unpredictable stress
Yonggang Gao,Jing-Jing Zhou,Yun Zhu,Li Wang,Therese A Kosten,Xiangjian Zhang,De-Pei Li
British Journal of Pharmacology. 2017; 174(17): 2929
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181 Legumain correlates with neuroblastoma differentiation and can be used in prodrug design
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182 Chamomile and oregano extracts synergistically exhibit antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renal protective effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
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Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2017; 95(1): 84
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183 FABP4 blocker attenuates colonic hypomotility and modulates white adipose tissue-derived hormone levels in mouse models mimicking constipation-predominant IBS
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184 Development of Neurological Mouse Model for Toxoplasmosis Using Toxoplasma gondii Isolated from Chicken in Kenya
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185 Simulating real-life exposures to uncover possible risks to human health: A proposed consensus for a novel methodological approach
AM Tsatsakis,D Kouretas,MN Tzatzarakis,P Stivaktakis,K Tsarouhas,KS Golokhvast,VN Rakitskii,VA Tutelyan,AF Hernandez,R Rezaee,G Chung,C Fenga,AB Engin,M Neagu,AL Arsene,AO Docea,E Gofita,D Calina,I Taitzoglou,J Liesivuori,AW Hayes,S Gutnikov,C Tsitsimpikou
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186 Preclinical evaluation of nephroprotective potential of a probiotic formulation LOBUN on Cyclosporine-A induced renal dysfunction in Wistar rats
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187 Evaluation of hepatic glycogen content, some haematological and biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with combinations of glibenclamide and G. latifolium extract
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Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2017; 0(0)
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188 Mouse models of atherosclerosis: a historical perspective and recent advances
Yee Ting Lee,Hiu Yu Lin,Yin Wah Fiona Chan,Ka Hou Christien Li,Olivia Tsz Ling To,Bryan P Yan,Tong Liu,Guangping Li,Wing Tak Wong,Wendy Keung,Gary Tse
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189 A novel method for isolation of histones from serum and its implications in therapeutics and prognosis of solid tumours
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190 Effect and Mechanism of Virechana Karma (Therapeutic Purgation) Over Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome
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191 Experimental study of antitumour activity and effects on leukocyte count of intraperitoneal administration and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) with dioxadet in a rat model of ovarian cancer
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192 Extract ofSesbania grandifloraAmeliorates Hyperglycemia in High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus
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193 Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur HerbNepeta bracteataBenth.
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194 Fortification of alcoholic beverages (12% v/v) with tea (Camellia sinensis) reduces harmful effects of alcohol ingestion and metabolism in mouse model
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195 Antibiotic-eluting hydrophilized PMMA bone cement with prolonged bactericidal effect for the treatment of osteomyelitis
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198 Use of ‘dilute-and-shoot’ liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in preclinical research: application to a DMPK study of perhexiline in mouse plasma
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202 Prolonged anti-bacterial activity of ion-complexed doxycycline for the treatment of osteomyelitis
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208 Antidiabetic activity of Chandraprabha vati – A classical Ayurvedic formulation
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209 Pre-clinical investigation of plasma pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a novel antithrombotic agent S002-333 in mice using LC–MS/MS
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210 Synergy and translation of allogenic bone marrow stem cells after photodynamic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tetra sulfonatophenyl porphyrin and TiO2 nanowhiskers
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211 Injection of insulin amyloid fibrils in the hippocampus of male Wistar rats: report on memory impairment and formation of amyloid plaques
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213 The proliferation potential of promastigotes of the main Leishmania species of the old world in NNN culture medium prepared using blood of four different mammals
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214 A study on the effect of cimetidine and l-carnitine on myoglobinuric acute kidney injury in male rats
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215 miR-223 Deficiency Protects against Fas-Induced Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Liver Injury through Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor
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216 Screening of flavonoids rich fractions of three Indian medicinal plants used for the management of liver diseases
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217 Bio-imaging and Photodynamic Therapy with Tetra Sulphonatophenyl Porphyrin (TSPP)-TiO2 Nanowhiskers: New Approaches in Rheumatoid Arthritis Theranostics
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219 Comparative biochemical and pathological changes in some laboratory animals experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and their responses to diminazene diaceturate (Veriben®) therapy
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220 Evaluation of newly isolated probiotics in the protection against experimental intestinal trichinellosis
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221 The Effect of Pioglitazone on Pharmacokinetics of Carbamazepine in Healthy Rabbits
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222 A murine model of lung ischemia and reperfusion injury: tricks of the trade
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225 Blood clot formed on rough titanium surface induces early cell recruitment
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226 Arsenic Exposure and Glucose Intolerance/Insulin Resistance in Estrogen-Deficient Female Mice
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227 miR-150 Deficiency Protects against FAS-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice through Regulation of AKT
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228 Pulmonary Permeability Assessed by Fluorescent-Labeled Dextran Instilled Intranasally into Mice with LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury
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230 Location, Location, Location
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231 In vitroandin vivogenotoxic evaluation ofBothrops moojenisnake venom
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232 Antidiabetic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Streptozotocin – Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats
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233 Sleep Deprivation Aggravates Median Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Enhances Microglial Activation by Suppressing Melatonin Secretion
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234 A high-throughput in vivo micronucleus assay for genome instability screening in mice
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235 Potentiated anti-microsporidial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus CH1 bacteriocin using gold nanoparticles
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236 [Pyr1]-Apelin-13 delivery via nano-liposomal encapsulation attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction
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237 Effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
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238 Effect of Clonidine on Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rabbit Model and Its Interaction with Metformin
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240 Photodynamic activity of the boronated chlorin e6 amide in artificial and cellular membranes
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241 Au–Cu2–xSe Heterodimer Nanoparticles with Broad Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance as Contrast Agents for Deep Tissue Imaging
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242 Antihyperlipidemic effect of Angiosifa, a polyherbal formulation, in Sprague–Dawley rats
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246 Sensitive polarographic electrochemical determination of clarithromycin in blood serum
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247 Development and validation of RP-HPLC method with ultraviolet detection for estimation of montelukast in rabbit plasma: Application to preclinical pharmacokinetics
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251 Osmotically controlled pulsatile release capsule of montelukast sodium for chronotherapy: Statistical optimization,in vitroandin vivoevaluation
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256 Measurement of invasive blood pressure in rats
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257 Biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B using magnetic resonance imaging in a normal and tumoric animal model
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260 Evaluation of DNA damage using single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay)
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