Table of Contents  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 83-87  

Switch over from intravenous to oral therapy: A concise overview

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Health Science Campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Ponekkara, Kochi, Kerala, India

Date of Web Publication7-Apr-2014

Correspondence Address:
Jissa Maria Cyriac
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Health Science Campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, PO. Ponekkara, Ernakulam, Kochi 682 041, Kerala
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.130042

Rights and Permissions

Majority of the patients admitted to a hospital with severe infections are initially started with intravenous medications. Short intravenous course of therapy for 2-3 days followed by oral medications for the remainder of the course is found to be beneficial to many patients. This switch over from intravenous to oral therapy is widely practiced in the case of antibiotics in many developed countries. Even though intravenous to oral therapy conversion is inappropriate for a patient who is critically ill or who has inability to absorb oral medications, every hospital will have a certain number of patients who are eligible for switch over from intravenous to oral therapy. Among the various routes of administration of medications, oral administration is considered to be the most acceptable and economical method of administration. The main obstacle limiting intravenous to oral conversion is the belief that oral medications do not achieve the same bioavailability as that of intravenous medications and that the same agent must be used both intravenously and orally. The advent of newer, more potent or broad spectrum oral agents that achieve higher and more consistent serum and tissue concentration has paved the way for the popularity of intravenous to oral medication conversion. In this review, the advantages of intravenous to oral switch over therapy, the various methods of intravenous to oral conversion, bioavailability of various oral medications for the switch over program, the patient selection criteria for conversion from parenteral to oral route and application of intravenous to oral switch over through case studies are exemplified.

Keywords: Economic impact, intravenous to oral, parenteral medication, switch over

How to cite this article:
Cyriac JM, James E. Switch over from intravenous to oral therapy: A concise overview. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2014;5:83-7

How to cite this URL:
Cyriac JM, James E. Switch over from intravenous to oral therapy: A concise overview. J Pharmacol Pharmacother [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Jan 27];5:83-7. Available from:

   Introduction Top

The ideal route of administration of any medication is the one that achieves serum concentrations sufficient to produce the desired effect without producing any untoward effects. [1] Safest and convenient way of medication administration is achieved by oral route. If the given oral medication achieves tissue and blood concentration to the same extent as that of the intravenous (IV) medication, then there is little therapeutic difference between IV and oral medications. [2] The available oral formulations in the market are easier to administer, safe and achieve desired therapeutic concentrations, thus making the per oral (PO) route an ideal choice. [1],[3]

World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the irrational use of medicines is a major problem worldwide. [4] The over-use of injections, when oral formulations would be more appropriate, is one of the key factors for the irrational use of medicines. Hence IV to oral switch over within an appropriate time is one of the major aspects to improve the rational use of injections. Moreover, once the culture and sensitivity reports are available, IV to oral switch over enables one to select a cheaper or older antibiotic, which is as effective as the IV antibiotic. This has significance in the light of the WHO world health day theme, 2011: 'Anti-microbial resistance: No action today, no cure tomorrow'. [5]

Bioavailability of IV medications is always higher than that of their oral counterpart, so that the patient may get relief from symptoms earlier if they receive a complete IV course of therapy, is a concept that is popular among the physicians. [6] But the fact is that for a large number of medications, essentially the same amount of drug is found in the blood when given intravenously or orally. Moreover, they believe that chances of reinfection will be less if they give a complete IV course of antibiotics. [2] As a result, physicians usually tend to opt for the IV medications at the time of admission and continue them till patient discharge.

In the Indian scenario, the concept of early switch over from IV to oral therapy is not common even though it is popular in Western countries. [7],[8],[9] A study carried out by Palanisamy and colleagues in the general medicine department of a 450 bedded tertiary care hospital in south India for a period of 6 months showed that the average cost of antibiotics and the length of stay of patients could be reduced due to early switch over from parenteral to oral therapy. [10] A new approach to carry out the IV to oral switch over is to establish a computerized intervention. Patient's data along with details of medications received are entered into a computer and on every day at midnight, the computer compiles a list of patients who are matching with selection criteria for switch over. Pharmacist takes the print out of the list and discusses with the physician for switch over according to the clinical status of the patient. [6],[11]

Most of the studies related to IV to PO conversions have been restricted to certain antibiotic and certain medical condition like respiratory tract infections. [12],[13] Only a few studies have been done to assess physician's knowledge, beliefs and acceptance of the switch over from IV to oral therapy. [2] Antibiotics, gastrointestinal agents (mainly proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 antagonists), and antifungals are major medication classes that can be utilized in IV to oral switch over. [11] In many of the advanced hospitals in developed countries, flouroquinolones are the predominant drug class which is commonly involved in switch over program. [12],[14] The drugs such as metronidazole, azithromycin, and linezolid are also involved in IV to PO conversion program. Less commonly, doxycycline, and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are also involved in switch over. In the case of antifungals, fluconazole and itraconazole are the two major drugs involved in switch over from IV to oral. [11] Various drug classes involved in IV to oral conversion, in the ascending order of preference, are Diuretics < Corticosteroids < Analgesics < Antivirals < Cardiovascular agents < Antifungals < GI agents < Antibacterials. [11]

Advantages of oral over IV route

Early switch over from IV to oral therapy has the following major advantages:

  • Reduced risk of cannula-related infections: For the administration of IV medications, one is required to insert a cannula, which remains in place for some days and eventually can result in secondary infections caused by bacteria and fungi. This may ultimately lead to the need for additional antibiotics and subsequently financial burden to the patient [1]
  • Risk of thrombophlebitis: No risk of thrombophlebitis in case of oral administration [1],[3],[11]
  • Less expensive than IV therapy: Most of the oral medications available at the market are less expensive as the parenteral medications must be sterile and isotonic, consequently leading to cost savings by the patient [1],[15],[16]
  • Reduction in the hidden costs: Hidden costs mainly refer to cost of diluents, equipments for administration, needles, syringes, and nursing time. Needles, syringes, diluents, and other equipments are the unavoidable requisites for the parenteral administration. Above all, an experienced professional must be there to administer the injection. As a result, it may cause a financial burden for the patient and take away valuable nursing time for patient-care [1],[15],[16]
  • Earlier discharge: Injections are usually administered in a hospital setting as it requires an experienced professional to administer the medication, especially IV infusions. Hence the patient stay at the hospital is prolonged. Early switch over to oral medications can help to overcome this barrier and may result in early discharge of the patient. [1]

Types of IV to oral conversions

There are mainly three types of IV to PO conversions. [1]

  • Sequential therapy: It refers to the act of replacing a parenteral version of a medication with its oral counterpart of the same compound. For instance, conversion of inj. pantoprazole 40 mg OD (once daily) to tab. pantoprazole 40 mg OD [16]
  • Switch therapy: It describes the conversion of an IV medication to a PO equivalent; within the same class and has the same level of potency, but of a different compound. For example, switch over from inj. ceftriaxone 1 g BD (bis in die) to tab. cefixime 200 mg BD, [17] switch over from inj. pantoprazole 40 mg BD to tab. rabeprazole 20 mg BD
  • Step down therapy: It refers to the conversion from an injectable medication to an oral agent in another class or to a different medication within the same class where the frequency, dose, and the spectrum of activity (in the case of antibiotics) may not be exactly the same. For example, conversion of inj. cefotaxim 1 g to tab. ciprofloxacin 500 mg, switch over from inj. heparin to tab. warfarin.

Practical approaches for conversion of a patient from IV to oral therapy

Establishment of an IV to oral switch over program at a hospital is the stepping stone toward the successful conversion of a patient from IV to oral therapy. It is the sole responsibility of a clinical pharmacist to establish such a guideline with the approval of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee of the hospital and ensure that the conversion is done in tune with the guideline. [1],[2],[18]

  • First, a clinical pharmacist should identify patients who receive IV medications and also recognize the need for IV medication in those patients and check for the indication
  • Second, regular follow-up is needed to check whether the patient's clinical status (WBC [white blood cells], vitals, culture report, patient's physical and mental condition, etc.) is improving or not. If the patient is eligible for conversion [Table 3], check whether the conversion was done
  • Inform the physician about the patients who are eligible for conversion but not converted within the appropriate time
  • Make suitable recommendations for the selection of an oral medication for conversion
  • Review the feedback of the physicians
  • Monitor the patient's clinical progress after the switch over and convert the patient back to parenteral medication, if required
  • It is always advisable to verify the knowledge and beliefs of physicians regarding the guideline for switch over from IV to oral therapy. A data collection tool like questionnaires can be used for the same.
{Table 1 }
Table 2: Examples of drugs with good bioavailability (60-90%) eligible for IV to oral switch over

Click here to view
Table 3: Patient selection criteria for IV to oral switch over therapy

Click here to view

The patient selection criteria for IV to oral switch therapy [1],[19],[21] is given in [Table 3].

Bioavailability of medications included in IV to oral conversion

Usually 100% bioavailability is assured only for IV medications and not for other routes like intramuscular or subcutaneous route. When a medication is administered intravenously it can directly reach the blood circulation and thereby assure 100% bioavailability. To be effective, oral antibiotics must achieve serum bactericidal activity almost comparable to that of its IV counterpart. [1],[9] [Table 1] explains the examples of IV to oral switch over for medications with >90% bioavailablity. Examples of drugs with good bioavailability (60-90%) eligible [19],[20] for IV to oral switch over are given in [Table 2].

Therapeutic application of IV to oral switch over: Special focus on some common disease conditions

Community-acquired pneumonia

About 40-60% of patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia are eligible for switch over within 2-3 days of treatment. [11] Vital signs and WBC should be monitored before conversion from IV to oral therapy. Flouroquinolones are the first line drugs for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Study which compared IV/PO moxifloxacin with IV/PO amoxicillin-clavulanate with or without clarithromycin proved that moxifloxacin is rated at a higher percentage of clinical cure. [22]

The following case illustrates an IV to PO conversion done at the appropriate time:

  • A 52-year-old female admitted to the general ward of a hospital with cough and breathing difficulty was treated empirically with inj. Cefoperazone - sulbactam 2 g BD and tab. levofloxacin 500 mg OD. She was also started on inj. pantoprazole 40 mg BD and inj. neurobion forte ® (vitamin B1, B6 and B12) OD. Her vitals and WBC counts became normal from the third day of admission. Later her sputum culture showed growth of Candida albicans. She was then started on tab. fluconazole 100 mg BD for 10 days and inj. cefoperazone-sulbactam was stopped, but tab. levofloxacin was continued till discharge. All the other parenteral medications were switched over to the oral form from the third day of admission (inj. pantoprazole to tab. pantoprazole 40 mg OD and inj. neurobion forte ® to tab. neurobion forte ® OD). The patient's condition improved with the oral medications.

Infectious diarrhea/typhoid (enteric) fever

Acute watery diarrhea is mainly caused by the pathogens Escherichia coli, campylobacter, salmonella or vibrio species. The preferred therapy is a quinolone IV or PO for 5 days. Both IV and oral formulations of quinolones have same bio-availability [1],[23],[24]

  • A 28-year-old male admitted for acute gastroenteritis was started on ciprofloxacin 200 mg IV 12 hourly and metronidazole 500 mg IV 8 hourly. He was also started on the same day inj. pantoprazole 40 mg 1-0-1, tab. racecadotril 100 mg 1-1-1 and tab. paracetamol 650 mg prn. From the second day his diarrhea and vomiting subsided and was able to take oral food. His vitals became normal on the third day of admission and WBC count was 9730/μl. It is possible to switch over the IV medications of this patient to the equivalent oral forms at the earliest [Table 1].

   Conclusion Top

Large array of medications are suitable for conversion from IV to oral therapy and various types of IV to oral conversions are possible. There are various guidelines available in this regard and each hospital should implement such a guideline at the initiation of a clinical pharmacist in order to accomplish an ideal IV to PO conversion therapy. The clinical pharmacist should thoroughly review the medical records and identify patients who are eligible for parenteral to oral therapy conversion. In the Indian scenario, we have yet to accomplish an ideal IV to PO conversion program in our day-to-day clinical practice.

   References Top

1.Kuper KM. Intravenous to oral therapy conversion. Text Book of Competence Assessment Tools for Health-System Pharmacies, 4 th ed. ASHP 2008. p. 347-60.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Lee SL, Azmi S, Wong PS. Clinicians' knowledge, beliefs and acceptance of intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switching, Hospital Pulau Pinang. Med J Malaysia 2012;67:190-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Sevinc F, Prins JM, Koopmans RP, Langendijk PN, Bossuyt PM, Dankert J, et al. Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: Guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999;43:601-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.The pursuit of responsible use of medicines: Sharing and learning from country experiences. Available from: use/en/. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 29; Last updated on 2013 Jun 22].  Back to cited text no. 4
5.World Health Day 2011 - Antibiotic resistance: No action today, no cure tomorrow. Available from: [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 29].  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Fischer MA, Solomon DH, Teich JM, Avorn J. Conversion from intravenous to oral medications: Assessment of a computerized intervention for hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:2585-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Cunha BA. Intravenous-to oral antibiotic switch therapy. A cost-effective approach. Postgrad Med 1997;101:111-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.McLaughlin CM, Bodasing N, Boyter AC, Fenelon C, Fox JG, Seaton RA. Pharmacy-implemented guidelines on switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics: An intervention study. QJM 2005;98:745-52.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Gyawali S, Shankar PR, Saha A, Mohan L. Study of prescription of injectable drugs and intravenous fluids to inpatients in a teaching hospital in Western Nepal. Mcgill J Med 2009;12:13-20.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Palanisamy A, Narmatha MP, Rajendran NN, Rajalingam B, Sriram S. Conversion of intravenous-to-oral antimicrobial therapy in South Indian population. IJRPBS 2011;2:1258-60.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Banko H, Goldwater SH, Adams E. Smoothing the path for intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) conversion: Where have we come in 11 years? Hosp Pharm 2009;44:959-67.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Cunha BA. Oral versus IV treatment for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13:1800-1.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.File TM Jr, Segreti J, Dunbar L, Player R, Kohler R, Williams RR, et al. A multicenter, randomized study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin versus ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41:1965-72.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Castro-Guardiola A, Viejo-Rodríguez AL, Soler-Simon S, Armengou-Arxé A, Bisbe-Company V, Peñarroja-Matutano G, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral and early-switch therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Med 2001;111:367-74.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Jensen KM, Paladino JA. Cost-Effectiveness of abbreviating the duration of intravenous antibacterial therapy with oral fluoroquinolones. Pharmacoeconomics 1997;11:64-74.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Galanter W, Liu XF, Lambert BL. Analysis of computer alerts suggesting oral medication use during computerized order entry of iv. medications. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2010;67:1101-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Hamilton-Miller JM. Switch therapy: The theory and practice of early change from parenteral to non-parenteral antibiotic administration. Clin Microbiol Infect 1996;2:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.NHS Grampian medicines management. Available from: http// [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 29; Last updated on 2012 Jun].  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Wetzstein GA. Intravenous to oral (iv: po) anti-infective conversion therapy. Cancer Control 2000;7:170-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.IV to oral conversion program. Available from: = newlook/files/Feat/ACF3023.cfm. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 29; Last updated on 2013 Jun 20].  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Zamin MT, Pitre MM, Conly JM. Development of an intravenous-to-oral route conversion program for antimicrobial therapy at a Canadian tertiary care health facility. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31:564-70.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Lee RW, Lindstrom ST. Early switch to oral antibiotics and early discharge guidelines in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Respirology 2007;12:111-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Janknegt R, van der Meer JW. Sequential therapy with intravenous and oral cephalosporins. J Antimicrob Chemother 1994;33:169-77.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Cunha BA. Text book of essentials of antibiotic prescribing, 10 th ed. USA: Jones and Barlett Publishers; 2011. p. 10-25.  Back to cited text no. 24


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 An innovative antimicrobial stewardship programme for children in remote and regional areas in Queensland, Australia: optimising antibiotic use through timely intravenous-to-oral switch
M.L. Avent, X.J. Lee, A.D. Irwin, N. Graham, D. Brain, J. Fejzic, M. van Driel, J.E. Clark
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 2022; 28: 53
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Management of Children Admitted to Hospitals across Bangladesh with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 and the Implications for the Future: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
Kona Chowdhury, Mainul Haque, Nadia Nusrat, Nihad Adnan, Salequl Islam, Afzalunnessa Binte Lutfor, Dilara Begum, Arif Rabbany, Enamul Karim, Abdul Malek, Nasim Jahan, Jesmine Akter, Sumala Ashraf, Mohammad Nazmul Hasan, Mahmuda Hassan, Najnin Akhter, Monika Mazumder, Nazmus Sihan, Nurun Naher, Shaheen Akter, Sifat Uz Zaman, Tanjina Chowdhury, Jebun Nesa, Susmita Biswas, Mohammod Didarul Islam, Al Mamun Hossain, Habibur Rahman, Palash Kumar Biswas, Mohammed Shaheen, Farah Chowdhury, Santosh Kumar, Amanj Kurdi, Zia Ul Mustafa, Natalie Schellack, Marshall Gowere, Johanna C. Meyer, Sylvia Opanga, Brian Godman
Antibiotics. 2022; 11(1): 105
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Histological Evidence of Wound Healing Improvement in Rats Treated with Oral Administration of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Vitis labrusca
Tarsizio S. Santos, Izabella D. D. dos Santos, Rose N. Pereira-Filho, Silvana V. F. Gomes, Isabel B. Lima-Verde, Maria N. Marques, Juliana C. Cardoso, Patricia Severino, Eliana B. Souto, Ricardo L. C. de Albuquerque-Júnior
Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 2021; 43(1): 335
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Drug Delivery Strategies for Curcumin and Other Natural Nrf2 Modulators of Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases
Nina Katarina Grilc, Matej Sova, Julijana Kristl
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(12): 2137
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 A Comprehensive Overview of Antibiotic Selection and the Factors Affecting It
Karan Patel, Sean Bunachita, Ank A Agarwal, Akshay Bhamidipati, Urvish K Patel
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Evaluation of Intravenous Diphenhydramine Use in Patients with Sickle Cell Vaso-Occlusive Crisis
Katherine Rector, Shelby Merchant, Rachel Crawford, Justin R. Arnall, James Symanowski, Padmaja Veeramreddy, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
Hospital Pharmacy. 2021; 56(6): 725
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Correcting hypophosphataemia in a paediatric patient with Sanjad–Sakati syndrome through a single oral dose of potassium phosphate intravenous solution
Mnaff A Sabti, Yousif A Shamsaldeen
SAGE Open Medical Case Reports. 2021; 9: 2050313X20
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Correcting hypokalaemia in a paediatric patient with Bartter syndrome through oral dose of potassium chloride intravenous solution
Salman Alasfour, Haya S Alfailakawi, Yousif A Shamsaldeen
SAGE Open Medical Case Reports. 2021; 9: 2050313X21
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Systematic review: the bioavailability of orally administered antibiotics during the initial phase of a systemic infection in non-ICU patients
Annemieke K. van den Broek, Jan M. Prins, Caroline E. Visser, Reinier M. van Hest
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Enhanced Recovery Programs in an Ambulatory Surgical Oncology Center
Anoushka M. Afonso, Patrick J. McCormick, Melissa J. Assel, Elizabeth Rieth, Kara Barnett, Hanae K. Tokita, Geema Masson, Vincent Laudone, Brett A. Simon, Rebecca S. Twersky
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2021; 133(6): 1391
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Optimizing Oral Medication Schedules for Inpatient Sleep: A Quality Improvement Intervention
Christine L. Mozer, Palak H. Bhagat, Sarah A. Seward, Noah R. Mason, Samantha L. Anderson, Maxx Byron, Leah B. Peirce, Victoria Konold, Madan Kumar, Vineet M. Arora, Nicola M. Orlov
Hospital Pediatrics. 2021; 11(4): 327
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Pharmaceutical Approaches on Antimicrobial Resistance: Prospects and Challenges
Firzan Nainu, Andi Dian Permana, Nana Juniarti Natsir Djide, Qonita Kurnia Anjani, Rifka Nurul Utami, Nur Rahma Rumata, Jianye Zhang, Talha Bin Emran, Jesus Simal-Gandara
Antibiotics. 2021; 10(8): 981
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Antibiotic stewardship–Basic principles in urinary tract infections, community acquired pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections
Eric Whitney
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. 2021; 51(4): 101002
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Clinical and operational factors associated with treatment duration for cellulitis in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT)
Joyeeta Palit, Joby Cole, Oyewole Christopher Durojaiye
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 2021; 100(1): 115305
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Alpha-mangostin and resveratrol, dual-drugs-loaded mucoadhesive thiolated chitosan-based nanoparticles for synergistic activity against colon cancer cells
Wipada Samprasit, Praneet Opanasopit, Benchawan Chamsai
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Twenty years of research on HPV vaccines based on genetically modified lactic acid bacteria: an overview on the gut-vagina axis
Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Hossein Keyvani, Luis G. Bermúdez-Humarán, Gilbert G. G. Donders, Xiangsheng Fu, Amir Hossein Mohseni
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2021; 78(4): 1191
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Novel ferrocenyl chalcone derivatives as antibacterial agents: is there a solution to the problem?
Elecia J. Henry, Charles Thomas Bennett, Michael Collins, John P. Cassella
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2021; 30(6): 1284
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Early conversion of intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated urinary and respiratory tract infection
Bellapu Anusha, Preethi Shanmugam, T. Anil Kumar, Sharma Vasista, Chacko Stephy, Viswam Subeesh
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives. 2021; 37(4): 181
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Optimizing the Use of Antibiotic Agents in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Narrative Review
Jef Willems, Eline Hermans, Petra Schelstraete, Pieter Depuydt, Pieter De Cock
Pediatric Drugs. 2021; 23(1): 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Engineering mesoporous silica nanoparticles towards oral delivery of vancomycin
John Ndayishimiye, Yuxue Cao, Tushar Kumeria, Mark A. T. Blaskovich, James Robert Falconer, Amirali Popat
Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2021; 9(35): 7145
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Antibiotic consumption among hospitalized neonates and children in Punjab province, Pakistan
Zia Ul Mustafa, Muhammad Salman, Muhammad Yasir, Brian Godman, Hafiz Abdul Majeed, Mahpara Kanwal, Maryam Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal Riaz, Khezar Hayat, Syed Shahzad Hasan
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 PHarmacist Avoidance or Reductions in Medical Costs in Patients Presenting the EMergency Department: PHARM-EM Study
Megan A. Rech, William Adams, Keaton S. Smetana, Payal K. Gurnani, Megan A. Van Berkel Patel, William J. Peppard, Drayton A. Hammond, Alexander H. Flannery
Critical Care Explorations. 2021; 3(4): e0406
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Influence of switching from intravenous to oral administration on serum voriconazole concentration
Saki Harada, Takashi Niwa, Yusuke Hoshino, Ayasa Fujibayashi, Akio Suzuki
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2021; 46(3): 780
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among pediatric inpatients in different type hospitals
Ruixue Miao, Chaomin Wan, Zhiling Wang, Yu Zhu, Yun Zhao, Liling Zhang, Juan Liu, Jing Qin, Jialing Xia, Huiqiong Yan
Medicine. 2020; 99(2): e18714
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Interventions to improve the review of antibiotic therapy in acute care hospitals: a systematic review and narrative synthesis
Ayodeji Matuluko, Jennifer Macdonald, Valerie Ness, Kay Currie
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance. 2020; 2(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Bacterial pneumonia coinfection and antimicrobial therapy duration in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection
Liam Townsend, Gerry Hughes, Colm Kerr, Mary Kelly, Roisin O’Connor, Eileen Sweeney, Catriona Doyle, Ruth O’Riordan, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Colm Bergin, Ciaran Bannan
JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance. 2020; 2(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Impact of pharmaceutical price controls on the cost of cardiovascular drugs: does essentiality matter?
Simran Khanijo, Ashish Kumar Kakkar, Rohit Kumar, Amol Narayan Patil, Gomata Bhusal, Gopal Vishwas, Geetika Arora
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology. 2020; 13(7): 797
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Formulation of dispersible isoniazid/pyridoxine fixed-dose combination tablets for isoniazid preventive therapy in pediatrics
M. W. Mwangi, L. J. Tirop, P. M. Njogu, J. M. Bururia, N. M. Njuguna, E. G. Mbae, Udo Schumacher
Cogent Medicine. 2020; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Switch from parenteral to oral antibiotics for brain abscesses: a retrospective cohort study of 109 patients
Antoine Asquier-Khati, Colin Deschanvres, David Boutoille, Maeva Lefebvre, Paul Le Turnier, Benjamin Gaborit, Karim Lakhal, Kevin Buffenoir, Lydie Khatchatourian, Nathalie Asseray, Jérémie Orain, Raphael Lecomte, Julia Brochard, Charlotte Biron, François Raffi, Marie-Emmanuelle Juvin, Vincent Roualdes, Tanguy Riem, Chan Ngohou, Jérémie Orain, Raphael Lecomte, Julia Brochard, Charlotte Biron, François Raffi, Marie-Emmanuelle Juvin, Vincent Roualdes, Tanguy Riem, Chan Ngohou
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2020; 75(10): 3062
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Determination and Preclinical Pharmacokinetics of the ß-Lactamase Inhibitor ETX1317 and Its Orally Available Prodrug ETX0282
John O’Donnell, Angela Tanudra, April Chen, Daniel Hines, Ruben Tommasi, John Mueller
ACS Infectious Diseases. 2020; 6(6): 1378
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Antimicrobial Stewardship at the Core of COVID-19 Response Efforts: Implications for Sustaining and Building Programs
Hasti Mazdeyasna, Priya Nori, Payal Patel, Michelle Doll, Emily Godbout, Kimberly Lee, Andrew J. Noda, Gonzalo Bearman, Michael P. Stevens
Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2020; 22(9)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Analysis of Cadmium, Epigallocatechin Gallate, and Vitamin C Co-exposure on PC12 Cellular Mechanisms
Serene Ezra C. Bondad, Masaaki Kurasaki
Biological Trace Element Research. 2020; 198(2): 627
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Newly identified peptide hormone inhibits intestinal fat absorption and improves NAFLD through its receptor GPRC6A
Bin Teng, Chen Huang, Chuan-Li Cheng, Anjaneyulu Udduttula, Xiang-Fang Yu, Chang Liu, Jian Li, Zhen-Yu Yao, Jing Long, Li-Fu Miao, Chao Zou, Jun Chu, Jian V. Zhang, Pei-Gen Ren
Journal of Hepatology. 2020; 73(2): 383
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Dual Formulation and Interaction Strategies to Enhance the Oral Bioavailability of Paclitaxel
Bashaier Mohammed Al-Kandari, Monerah H. Al-Soraj, Mohsen A. Hedaya
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 109(11): 3386
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 A Novel Clinical Consideration to Conserve Parenteral Fentanyl During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Kyle T. Herndon, Kate S. Claussen, Jason J. Braithwaite
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2020; 131(5): 1355
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 A Treatment Pathway Variation for Chronic Prosthesis-Associated Infections
Jan Brügger, Simon Saner, Hubert P. Nötzli
JBJS Open Access. 2020; 5(4): e20.00042
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 The Changing Landscape of Uncomplicated Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A Narrative Review to Guide Inpatient Management
Jeannie D Chan, Chloe Bryson-Cahn, Zahra Kassamali-Escobar, John B Lynch, Anneliese M Schleyer
Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2020; 15(12): 746
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Evaluation of current practice of antimicrobial use and clinical outcome of patients with pneumonia at a tertiary care hospital in Ethiopia: A prospective observational study
Theodros Fenta, Ephrem Engidawork, Wondwossen Amogne, Alemseged Beyene Berha, Paul J. Planet
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0227736
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Analysis of the use and cost of stress ulcer prophylaxis for surgical inpatients
Dhani Wijaya, Elfri Padolo, Chrismawan Ardianto, Fendy Matulatan, Chris Alderman
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 2020; 30(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Utilizing Pharmacists to Optimize Medication Management Strategies During the COVID-19 Pandemic
L. Hayley Burgess, Mandelin K. Cooper, Elizabeth H. Wiggins, Karla M. Miller, Edward Murray, Scott Harris, Joan S. Kramer
Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2020; : 0897190020
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Secretion of Recombinant Interleukin-22 by Engineered Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces Fatty Liver Disease in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity
Jee-Hwan Oh, Kathryn L. Schueler, Donnie S. Stapleton, Laura M. Alexander, Chi-Liang Eric Yen, Mark P. Keller, Alan D. Attie, Jan-Peter van Pijkeren, Maria L. Marco
mSphere. 2020; 5(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Practical Issues of Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Investigations of New Drugs (Review)
V. V. Chistyakov, E. S. Stepanova
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2019; 53(4): 281
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Predictors of Oral Antibiotic Treatment Failure for Nonpurulent Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Emergency Department
Krishan Yadav,Kathryn N. Suh,Debra Eagles,John MacIsaac,Darmyn Ritchie,Jordan Bernick,Venkatesh Thiruganasambandamoorthy,George Wells,Ian G. Stiell,Alan E. Jones
Academic Emergency Medicine. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs
Cheston B. Cunha
Medical Clinics of North America. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Out-of-Pocket Household Expenditures on Medical Injections in Cambodia
Sachiko Ozawa,Tatenda T. Yemeke,Alie F. Tawah,Vivek Kulkarni,Manuela Villar Uribe
PharmacoEconomics - Open. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Identification of risk factors for failure in patients with skin and soft tissue infections
Brittany Cieri,Erin L. Conway,John A. Sellick,Kari A. Mergenhagen
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 An evaluation of the intravenous to oral antimicrobial conversion program in the inpatient setting
Zuying Felicia Woo,Wei Teng Chung,Jia En Wu,Hui Hiong Chen
Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 2018; 48(3): 269
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Two versus five days of antibiotics after appendectomy for complex acute appendicitis (APPIC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Anne Loes van den Boom,Elisabeth M. L. de Wijkerslooth,Joost van Rosmalen,Frédérique H. Beverdam,Evert-Jan G. Boerma,Marja A. Boermeester,Joanna W. A. M. Bosmans,Thijs A. Burghgraef,Esther C. J. Consten,Imro Dawson,Jan Willem T. Dekker,Marloes Emous,Anna A. W. van Geloven,Peter M. N. Y. H. Go,Luc A. Heijnen,Sander A. Huisman,Dayanara Jean Pierre,Joske de Jonge,Jurian H. Kloeze,Marc A. Koopmanschap,Hester R. Langeveld,Misha D. P. Luyer,Damian C. Melles,Johan W. Mouton,Augustinus P. T. van der Ploeg,Floris B. Poelmann,Jeroen E. H. Ponten,Charles C. van Rossem,Wilhelmina H. Schreurs,Joël Shapiro,Pascal Steenvoorde,Boudewijn R. Toorenvliet,Joost Verhelst,Hendt P. Versteegh,Rene M. H. Wijnen,Bas P. L. Wijnhoven
Trials. 2018; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Lyme neuroborreliosis: do we treat according to guidelines?
Åslaug R. Lorentzen,Kristine J. N. Forselv,Geir Helgeland,Rigmor E. Salvesen,Geir Sand,Heidi Ø. Flemmen,Margrete H. Bø,Ludmila Nordaa,Anna K. Roos,Marion W. Jim,Jone F. Owe,Kaja B. Nyquist,Stephan Schüler,Randi Eikeland,Åse Mygland,Unn Ljøstad
Journal of Neurology. 2017; 264(7): 1506
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Silica-based systems for oral delivery of drugs, macromolecules and cells
Roudayna Diab,Nadia Canilho,Ileana A. Pavel,Fernanda B. Haffner,Maxime Girardon,Andreea Pasc
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Treatment Approach for Infection of Healed Fractures After Internal Fixation
Joshua M. Lawrenz,Salvatore J. Frangiamore,Ajinkya A. Rane,William Alex Cantrell,Heather A. Vallier
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. 2017; 31(11): e358
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Strategies for reduction in the duration of intravenous drug use: Interest of drug tracers as quality indicators to improve intravenous to oral switch
Jennifer Corny,Simon Perreau,Anne-Pauline Thivilliers,Céline Leplay,Delphine Chevalier,Hélène Beaussier,Yvonnick Bézie
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Comments on “Strategies for reduction in the duration of intravenous drug use: Interest of drug tracers as quality indicators to improve intravenous to oral switch”
Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi,Alireza Ahmadvand
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Evaluating physician awareness of common health care costs in the emergency department
Rohit Gandhi,Ian Stiell,Alan Forster,James Worthington,Madeleine Ziss,Jack B. Kitts,Ranjeeta Malik
CJEM. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Is there any difference in quality of prescribing between antibacterials and antifungals? Results from the first global point prevalence study (Global PPS) of antimicrobial consumption and resistance from 53 countries
Erlangga Yusuf,Ann Versporten,Herman Goossens
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 The Worldwide Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) point prevalence survey: developing hospital-quality indicators of antibiotic prescribing for children
Ann Versporten,Julia Bielicki,Nico Drapier,Mike Sharland,Herman Goossens
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2016; : dkv418
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship on Outcomes in Hospitalized Veterans With Pneumonia
Kari E. Kurtzhalts,John A. Sellick,Christine A. Ruh,James F. Carbo,Michael C. Ott,Kari A. Mergenhagen
Clinical Therapeutics. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Exertional heat stroke in a young military trainee: is it preventable?
Buddhika T. B. Wijerathne,Senaka D. Pilapitiya,Vadivel Vijitharan,Mohammed M. F. Farah,Yashodhara V. M. Wimalasooriya,Sisira H Siribaddana
Military Medical Research. 2016; 3(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Assessment and management of the septic patient: part 2
Jody Vaughan,Andy Parry
British Journal of Nursing. 2016; 25(21): 1196
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Methodology in improving antibiotic implementation policies
Onur Özgenç
World Journal of Methodology. 2016; 6(2): 143
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Impact of educational interventions on the physicians for early switchover of parenteral drugs to oral therapy: Table 1
Emmanuel James,Jissa Maria Cyriac
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice. 2015; 22(3): 176
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Ceftolozane-tazobactam versus levofloxacin in urinary tract infection
Tom Boyles
The Lancet. 2015; 386(10000): 1241
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Evaluation of a protocol-based intervention to promote timely switching from intravenous to oral paracetamol for post-operative pain management: an interrupted time series analysis
Nirmeen Sabry,Dalia Dawoud,Adel Alansary,Natalia Hounsome,Darrin Baines
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2015; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded3880    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 63    

Recommend this journal