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   2013| July-September  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 5, 2013

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N -acetyl cysteine in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of reported outcomes
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pradip Kumar Saha, Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pradip Kumar Saha
July-September 2013, 4(3):187-191
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114597  PMID:23960423
Clomiphene citrate (CC) has been the gold-standard drug for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but still CC resistance is seen in approximately 15-40% in women with PCOS. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe and cheap drug available in the market many years ago as mucolytic agent, was found to have a role in infertility management. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of NAC on ovulation. The biological properties of the NAC make this drug a potential candidate for its use in the infertility treatment, especially in the PCOS in inducing or augmenting ovulation. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, full text, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for role of NAC in CC-resistant PCOS. Thorough search through all the clinical studies showed mixed results. Studies with positive results showed improvement in induction of ovulation as compared to negative studies showing contrary results. More randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish its definitive role in CC-resistant PCOS.
  5,976 527 4
Metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia: Differences between antipsychotic-naïve and treated patients
Rakesh K Chadda, Prashanth Ramshankar, Koushik S Deb, Mamta Sood, Rakesh K Chadda, Prashanth Ramshankar, Koushik S Deb, Mamta Sood
July-September 2013, 4(3):176-186
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114596  PMID:23960422
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in general population and in patients with severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia. This paper reviews studies on MetS in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, and assesses the contribution of antipsychotics toward the development of MetS. Databases of Medline (PubMed), PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for MetS, psychotic disorders, and antipsychotic drugs from inception till present. Prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia was found to be ranging from 3.3% to 68.0%. Prevalence in antipsychotic-naïve and antipsychotic-treated patients ranged between 3.3-26.0% and 32.0-68.0% respectively, and was higher in younger patients, female gender and Hispanics, and lower in African-Americans and Orientals. Prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was higher in patients receiving second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), especially with clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, as compared to first generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Antipsychotic-induced changes on metabolic indices became evident after 2 weeks and reached maximum at 3 months of treatment. There is a need to sensitize the mental health professionals at all levels about the need of screening and monitoring for MetS in patients receiving antipsychotics.
  5,190 898 29
An experimental spinal cord injury rat model using customized impact device: A cost-effective approach
KM Vijayaprakash, N Sridharan
July-September 2013, 4(3):211-213
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114607  PMID:23960429
Till date, NYU MASCIS (New York University, Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study) impactor and Ohio State University electromagnetic spinal cord injury device impactor were under use for simulating an experimental spinal cord injury in rodents; functional recovery being assessed through Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring method which is an open field behavior based scoring system. Although, the cited impactors are state-of-art devices, affordability to scientists in developing and under developed countries is questionable. Since the acquisition of these impact devices are expensive, we designed a customized impact device based on the requirement, satisfying all the parameters to withstand a standard animal model for contusion type of spinal cord injury at the thoracic level without compromising the lesion reproducibility. Here, a spinal cord contusion is created using a blunt-force impactor in male Wistar rats. Our method gave consistent lesion effects as evaluated by behavior scoring methods. All the animals showed equal degree of performance in tests like narrow beam, inclined plane and horizontal ladder and in BBB scores (open field locomotor test). The aim of presenting our experience is to reinstate the fact that lack of affordability to get sophisticated instrumentation need not be a hurdle in the pursuit of science.
  3,773 624 5
Neuroprotective role of naringenin on carbaryl induced neurotoxicity in mouse neuroblastoma cells
Vijaya Prakash Krishnan Muthaiah, Lavanya Venkitasamy, Felicia Mary Michael, Kirubhanand Chandrasekar, Sankar Venkatachalam
July-September 2013, 4(3):192-197
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114599  PMID:23960424
Objective: Neuroprotective effect of naringenin against carbaryl toxicity was studied in mouse neuroblastoma cell line. Materials and Methods: Mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro 2A) obtained from National Center for Cell Sciences, Pune, India were either exposed to carbaryl or pre-treated with naringenin (a flavonoid prepared from grape fruit) before their exposure to carbaryl. Results were analyzed using MTT [3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability, FACS (fluorescence assisted cell sorting) analysis for apoptotic and necrotic cell populations, DCFH-DA (2`,7`-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate) assay for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) visualization, JC-1 staining for determining mitochondrial membrane potential and real-time PCR for quantifying pro and anti-apoptotic gene expression. Results: Exposure to naringenin resulted in better survival of Neuro 2A cells which were subsequently subjected to carbaryl toxicity. Treatment with naringenin was found to reduce the oxidative stress by decreasing the ROS and was found to maintain the integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential. It was also found to downregulate pro-apoptotic genes (BAX and Caspase-3) while upregulating anti-apototic gene (Bcl2). Conclusion: The results of this pilot study underline the potential of naringenin in treating carbaryl induced neurotoxicity and further studies are warranted to establish the effect of naringenin in vivo conditions.
  2,809 575 11
Comparison of efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii strain in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children: A prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial
Meeta Amit Burande
July-September 2013, 4(3):205-208
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114603  PMID:23960427
  2,849 518 3
Pseudocyesis: A complication of antipsychotic-induced increased prolactin levels and weight gain
Sandeep Grover, Akhilesh Sharma, Deepak Ghormode, Nikita Rajpal
July-September 2013, 4(3):214-216
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114610  PMID:23960430
Pseudocyesis or phantom pregnancy is characterized by a false belief in a non-pregnant female that she is pregnant and this belief is usually associated with bodily signs of pregnancy. In some of the patients, this belief is held with delusional conviction. In this case report, we present the case of a female patient who presented with delusional belief of being pregnant, which was associated with antipsychotic-associated increase in prolactin levels and metabolic syndrome.
  2,589 403 2
Improving quality of medical education in India: The need to value and recognize academic scholarship
Thomas V Chacko
July-September 2013, 4(3):171-173
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114595  PMID:23960420
  2,413 570 -
Effects of structural analogues of apelin-12 in acute myocardial infarction in rats
Oleg I Pisarenko, Larisa I Serebryakova, Irina M Studneva, Yulia A Pelogeykina, Olga V Tskitishvili, Zhanna D Bespalova, Maria V Sidorova, Andrei A Az'muko, Denis N Khatri, Maria E Pal'keeva, Alexander S Molokoedov
July-September 2013, 4(3):198-203
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114600  PMID:23960425
Objective: To examine cardioprotective effects of Ρ-terminal fragment of adipokine apelin-12 (A12), its novel structural analogue [MeArg1 , NLe 10 ]-A12 (I), and [d-Ala 12 ]-A12 (II), a putative antagonist of APJ receptor, employing in vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Materials and Methods: Peptides were synthesized by the automatic solid phase method using Fmoc technology. Anesthetized open-chest male Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and coronary reperfusion. Hemodynamic variables and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored throughout the experiment. Myocardial injury was assessed by infarct size (IS), activity of necrosis markers in plasma, and metabolic state of the area at risk (AAR). Results: Intravenous injection of A12, I, or II at the onset of reperfusion led to a transient reduction of the mean arterial pressure. A12 or I administration decreased the percent ratio of IS/AAR by 40% and 30%, respectively, compared with control animals which received saline. Both peptides improved preservation of high-energy phosphates, reduced lactate accumulation in the AAR, and lowered CK-MB and LDH activities in plasma at the end of reperfusion compared with these indices in control. Treatment with II did not significantly affect either the IS/AAR, % ratio, or activities of both markers of necrosis compared with control. The overall metabolic protection of the AAR in the treated groups increased in the following rank: II < A12 < I. Conclusions: The structural analogue of apelin-12 [MeArg 1 , NLe 10 ]-A12 may be a promising basis to create a new drug for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome.
  2,396 438 13
Modulation of inflammatory pain in response to a CCR2/CCR5 antagonist in rodent model
Masayuki Okamoto, Takeshi Suzuki, Nobuhide Watanabe
July-September 2013, 4(3):208-210
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114605  PMID:23960428
  2,005 347 5
Additive effect of propofol and fentanyl precipitating cardiogenic shock
AC Jesudoss Prabhakaran
July-September 2013, 4(3):217-219
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114612  PMID:23960431
The intravenous administration of propofol and fentanyl has become a common practice in a variety of clinical settings including outpatient dermatologic, cosmetic and oral surgery. The combination provides both systematic sedation and analgesia with low incidence of unwanted side effects. The cardiogenic shock is very uncommon in healthy individuals. The cardiovascular depressive effect of propofol and fentanyl has been well established, but the development of cardiogenic shock is very rare when these drugs are used together. Hence the awareness of this effect is advantageous to the patients undergoing such surgeries
  2,090 202 2
A new drug belonging to a novel class of drugs for type 2 diabetes
G Sivagnanam
July-September 2013, 4(3):224-225
  1,718 475 -
The metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia: A comorbidity or an association?
Rami Bou khalil, Rami Bou khalil
July-September 2013, 4(3):174-175
  1,703 287 1
Good! Is it the best???
Sandhiya Selvarajan, Steven Aibor Dkhar, Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai
July-September 2013, 4(3):220-221
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114611  PMID:23960432
  1,633 228 -
Audit of use of antibiotics and zinc supplement in childhood diarrhea
Kalahasthi Priyadarshini, Vishnu Raj, Sadasivam Balakrishnan
July-September 2013, 4(3):204-205
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114601  PMID:23960426
  1,525 328 1
Reply to "Good! is it the best ???
Aditi Chaturvedi, Yogendra Singh, Harish Chaturvedi, Vijay Thawani, Sakshi , Deepak Parihar
July-September 2013, 4(3):221-222
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.114622  PMID:23960433
  1,551 214 -
Baldness, a new marker for coronary heart disease risk
G Sivagnanam
July-September 2013, 4(3):223-224
  1,289 358 -
Majority general practitioners prescribe "Impure Placebo" drugs
G Sivagnanam
July-September 2013, 4(3):223-223
  1,264 326 -