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   2015| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 12, 2015

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Macitentan: An important addition to the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension
Anjan Khadka, Dick B Singh Brashier, Anantharamu Tejus, Ashok Kumar Sharma
January-March 2015, 6(1):53-57
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149151  PMID:25709357
Macitentan is an orphan drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role of pathophysiology of PAH. Macitentan, a new dual endothelin receptor antagonist, has reportedly improved prognosis of PAH patients by delaying the progression of disease. It prevents the binding of ET-1 to both endothelin A (ET A ) and endothelin B (ET B ) receptors. Macitentan displays higher efficacy, lesser adverse effects and drug interactions. It has completed phase III trials in 2012 for treatment of PAH and has been tried for ischemic digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis, recurrent glioblastoma and combination with chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Safety data for macitentan were obtained primarily from a placebo-controlled clinical study in 742 patients with PAH. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug on 13 October 2013. It is an important addition to long-term treatment of PAH.
  5,329 834 6
Riociguat: Something new in pulmonary hypertension therapeutics?
Elangovan Shanmugam, Amrita Jena, Melvin George
January-March 2015, 6(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149132  PMID:25709345
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to be a disease that is associated with woeful outcomes. The search for an ideal drug molecule for PH led to the discovery of riociguat, which is a first-in-class drug molecule that activates soluble guanylate cyclase. We conducted a systematic literature search using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar to gather evidence generated from published clinical trials on the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and regulatory status of riociguat. CHEST-1 and the PATENT-1 were phase-3 pivotal clinical trials that showed that riociguat was able to significantly improve the 6-min walk distance with 16 weeks of therapy as compared with the placebo arm. The drug also showed improvement in secondary outcome measures such as improvement in the pulmonary vascular resistance, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, World Health Organization functional class, time to clinical worsening and Borg dyspnea score. The drug had a modest safety profile, with hypotension being the most bothersome adverse effect. These findings led to various regulatory agencies around the world granting approval for riociguat for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The entry of a new class of drug for PAH and CTEPH therapy portends some hope for patients with a disease that is traditionally linked with a poor prognosis.
  4,291 985 1
A rare case modafinil dependence
Raman Krishnan, Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary
January-March 2015, 6(1):49-50
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149149  PMID:25709356
Modafinil, a non-amphetamine psychostimulant, is indicated for narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Modafinil is prescribed at the dose of 100 mg once in a day or as two doses, 12 h apart in a day. It has also been found that it reduces cocaine dependence and withdrawal phenomenon. Modafinil is claimed to have very low liability for abuse and dependence. Here we report a rare case of modafinil dependence.
  4,411 468 11
The mechanism of antidepressant-like effects of piroxicam in rats
Ronise Martins Santiago, Tiago Zaminelli, Taysa B Bassani, Suelen L Boschen, Marcelo M S Lima, Cláudio Da Cunha, Roberto Andreatini, Maria A B F Vital
January-March 2015, 6(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149133  PMID:25709346
Objective: To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of piroxicam with a focus on serotonergic neurotransmission. Materials and Methods: Rats were randomly distributed into the following groups: 0.9% saline control; 3 mg/kg pizotifen; 10 mg/kg sertraline; 10 mg/kg piroxicam; 10 mg/kg sertraline + 10 mg/kg piroxicam; 10 mg/kg sertraline + 3 mg/kg pizotifen; and 10 mg/kg piroxicam + 3 mg/kg pizotifen. All the drugs were dissolved in 0.9% saline. Three administrations of the drugs (piroxicam and sertraline) were performed 1, 5 and 24 h before testing the animals in the open field followed by the forced swim test (FST). Piroxicam and sertraline were administered orally by gavage and pizotifen was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before gavage. Immediately after the FST, the hippocampi were rapidly dissected for neurochemical analysis in high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Acute treatment with piroxicam promoted an antidepressant-like effect in the FST, which was associated with an increase in serotonin levels in the hippocampus. This effect was potentiated in the piroxicam + sertraline group but counteracted by administration of the non-selective serotonin receptor antagonist pizotifen. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of piroxicam in the FST is mediated by the serotonin system; however, by different mechanisms from those of sertraline.
  3,858 705 3
Hypoglycemia, polycythemia and hyponatremia in a newborn exposed to nebivolol during pregnancy
Maria Giuseppa Sullo, Domenico Perri, Michelina Sibilio, Concetta Rafaniello, Annamaria Fucile, Francesco Rossi, Annalisa Capuano
January-March 2015, 6(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149148  PMID:25709355
Nebivolol is a third-generation beta blocker that exerts selective antagonistic activity on β1 receptors. It has vasodilating properties that result from direct stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Nebivolol is indicated for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, and is generally well tolerated. In this article, we report a case of an infant who was admitted to the Pediatrics and Neonatology Unit of the Moscati Hospital (Aversa, Italy) about 24 hours after birth. The reason for hospitalization was persistent severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose = 30 mg/dL) and jaundice (total bilirubin = 12.5 mg/dL, indirect bilirubin 11.75 mg/dL). He was born by spontaneous delivery after a normal term pregnancy. Birth weight was 3040 g and the Apgar score was 6-9. The mother reported taking nebivolol 5 mg/day for unspecified tachycardia in the last 4 months of pregnancy. Clinical and instrumental investigations carried out during hospitalization did not reveal any congenital or perinatal abnormalities. After treatment for metabolic and electrolyte imbalance, he was discharged on the 10 th day of hospitalization, in good clinical condition and with normalization of clinical and laboratory parameters. Currently, there are no specific studies on nebivolol tolerability during pregnancy. Our data suggest that the risk profile of nebivolol during pregnancy is the same as that of other β-blockers. Therefore, further studies are required to determine the safety of β-blockers during pregnancy and the risks to the unborn child.
  3,915 442 1
The association of oral contraceptive pills with increase in intraocular pressure: Time for pharmacovigilance to step in
Sangeeta Bhanwra, Kaza Ahluwalia
January-March 2015, 6(1):51-52
  3,894 404 -
Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition with rolipram attenuates hepatocellular injury in hyperinflammation in vivo and in vitro without influencing inflammation and HO-1 expression
Jakob Wollborn, Christian Wunder, Jana Stix, Winfried Neuhaus, Rapahel R Bruno, Wolfgang Baar, Sven Flemming, Norbert Roewer, Nicolas Schlegel, Martin A Schick
January-March 2015, 6(1):13-23
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149138  PMID:25709347
Objective: To investigate the impact of the phophodiesterase-4 inhibition (PD-4-I) with rolipram on hepatic integrity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced hyperinflammation. Materials and Methods: Liver microcirculation in rats was obtained using intravital microscopy. Macrohemodynamic parameters, blood assays, and organs were harvested to determine organ function and injury. Hyperinflammation was induced by LPS and PD-4-I rolipram was administered intravenously one hour after LPS application. Cell viability of HepG2 cells was measured by EZ4U-kit based on the dye XTT. Experiments were carried out assessing the influence of different concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and LPS with or without PD-4-I. Results: Untreated LPS-induced rats showed significantly decreased liver microcirculation and increased hepatic cell death, whereas LPS + PD-4-I treatment could improve hepatic volumetric flow and cell death to control level whithout influencing the inflammatory impact. In HepG2 cells TNF-α and LPS significantly reduced cell viability. Coincubation with PD-4-I increased HepG2 viability to control levels. The heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathway did not induce the protective effect of PD-4-I. Conclusion: Intravenous PD-4-I treatment was effective in improving hepatic microcirculation and hepatic integrity, while it had a direct protective effect on HepG2 viability during inflammation.
  3,235 472 3
Adverse drug reactions of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: A single-center surveillance study
Jose Francis, Muthiah Palaniappan, Biswajit Dubashi, Suresh Chandra Pradhan, Adithan Chandrasekaran
January-March 2015, 6(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149141  PMID:25709349
Objective: To monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with imatinib treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out by the Departments of Pharmacology and Medical Oncology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India. The study was carried out from March 2012 to February 2014. The ADRs were reported in a suspected Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting form, provided by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The ADRs were analyzed for their pattern, causality and severity. Results: A total of 326 ADRs from 81 patients were reported during the study period. The hematological toxicities were much more prominent than the non-hematological toxicities in this study. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia (21.17%) was higher compared with other reactions. Further analysis showed that most of the ADRs were mild to moderate in nature. The causality assessment revealed that the majority of the ADRs belonged to the possible category. Conclusion: The present study in a tertiary care hospital suggests that hematological toxicities are predominant in CML patients treated with imatinib mesylate. The blood and lymphatic system (38.96%) was the most affected, with imatinib therapy and thrombocytopenia (21.17%) being the most commonly encountered ADRs in the present study. Thorough monitoring of ADRs is warranted for better treatment outcomes.
  3,089 519 1
Boosting the brand image
Vijay Thawani, Priyanka Singh, Heenopama Thakur
January-March 2015, 6(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149126  PMID:25709344
  2,974 632 -
Antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage: A randomized trial
Ajit Agarwal, Sathasivam Suresh Kumar, Jagdish Sadasivan, Vikram Kate
January-March 2015, 6(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149139  PMID:25709348
Objective: To assess the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients who underwent endoscopic therapy for bleeding esophageal varices were randomized into the prophylaxis group and the on-demand group. Patients in the prophylaxis group received antibiotic prophylaxis using intravenous ofloxacin till the patient resumed oral fluids, followed by oral ofloxacin tablet for a total of 7 days. In the on-demand group, antibiotics were used only when infection was evident. Patients were monitored for rebleeding and infection during the hospital stay. Results: A total of 30 patients in the prophylaxis group and 26 patients in the on-demand group were analyzed. The clinical characteristics in both the groups were similar. The Child-Pugh score was around 7 in both the groups. The incidence of infection was 5/30 (16.7%) in the prophylaxis group and 7/26 (26.9%) in the on-demand group (P = 0.52). The incidence of early rebleeding in the prophylaxis vs. the on-demand group was 3 vs. 5 (P = 0.69), and the incidence of late rebleeding was 6 vs. 8 (P = 0.48). The differences were not significant. Conclusion: The present study shows a trend toward lower rate of early and late rebleeding, infection rate and mortality in the prophylaxis group; hence, routine use of antibiotics in all such patients may not be necessary. Further studies with a larger sample size and a longer follow-up period are required to validate the usefulness of antibiotics in these patients.
  2,849 537 1
Pindolol augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and clomipramine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis
Sean A Sassano-Higgins, Michele T Pato
January-March 2015, 6(1):36-38
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149144  PMID:25709352
  3,002 318 1
Isolated sinus tachycardia following reinitiation of risperidone in a patient with suspected autonomic hypersensitivity
Melanie J Grubisha, Jessica L Brennan, Antoine Douaihy
January-March 2015, 6(1):42-44
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149147  PMID:25709354
The second generation antipsychotic risperidone is generally considered to have low cardiac adverse events, with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias being reported only rarely in literature. We report here the case of a patient with a significant history of alcohol dependence, yet with no previous cardiac history, who had previously tolerated risperidone well, but had experienced isolated sinus tachycardia in the post detox period, following the reinitiation of risperidone therapy. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) probability scale rating for this being a medication adverse event (AE) was 4, thus indicating that this  patient's AE was associated with risperidone therapy. This case report will contribute to the limited evidence of adverse cardiac events associated with risperidone therapy, with particular emphasis on the susceptibility of patients in a state of autonomic hypersensitivity.
  2,814 288 1
Recurrence of atrial fibrillation after switching from brand to generic atenolol
Luca Gallelli, Francesca Maida, Orietta Staltari, Pierandrea Rende, Emilio Russo, Benedetto Caroleo, Giovambattista De Sarro
January-March 2015, 6(1):39-41
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149146  PMID:25709353
Beta blockers are the initial treatment for rate control of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia in patients without a history of myocardial infarction or left ventricular dysfunction. In this article we report the recurrence of atrial fibrillation after switching to the generic formulation of atenolol.
  2,659 325 1
Stevens-Johnson syndrome caused by cefepime?
Mavilia Luciano, Trifiro’ Caterina, Mercuri Santo Raffaele
January-March 2015, 6(1):35-36
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149143  PMID:25709351
  2,053 321 1
Structural aberration in R282K genetic mutation and antiviral drug-resistant H7N9 bird flu
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-March 2015, 6(1):34-34
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149142  PMID:25709350
  2,018 278 1
Management of diabetes in the elderly with canagliflozin: A newer hypoglycemic drug on the horizon: Erratum

January-March 2015, 6(1):58-58
DOI:10.4103/0976-500X.149153  PMID:25707944
  1,819 352 -